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(c)1666(1832) John Eliot Indian grammar begun(tm)

Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Second Series,
9 (1832), 243-312.

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<243>

                            THE

                   INDIAN GRAMMAR BEGUN:

                             OR,

            AN ESSAY TO BRING THE INDIAN LANGUAGE

                            INTO

                            RULES,

       FOR THE HELP OF SUCH AS DESIRE TO LEARN THE SAME, FOR
             THE FURTHERANCE OF THE GOSPEL AMONG THEM.

                       BY JOHN ELIOT.

Isa. 33. 19. Thou shalt not see a  fierce people, a people of a deeper
speech than thou canst perceive, of a stammering tongue, that thou
canst not understand.

Isa. 66. 18. It shall come that I will gather all Nations and Tongues,
and they shall come and see my Glory.

Dan, 7. 14. And there was given him Dominion, and Glory and a
Kingdome, that all People, Nations and Languages should serve
him, &c.

Psal. 19. 3. There is no speech nor language where their voice is not
heard.

Mal.3. 11.he From the rising of the Sun, even to the going down
of the same, my Name shall be great among the Gentiles, &c.

                       CAMBRIDGE:

              PRINTED BY MARMADUKE JOHNSON.

                          1666.

<245>

                 TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE,

                   ROBERT    BOYLE, ESQ;
                        GOVERNOUR:

     WITH THE REST OF THE RIGHT HONOURABLE AND CHRISTIAN

                       CORPORATION

         FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL UNTO
               THE INDIANS IN NEW-ENGLAND.

NOBLE SIR,

    YOU were pleased, among other Testimonies of your
Christian and prudent care for the effectual Progress
of this great Work of the Lord Jesus among the inhabitants
of these Ends of the Earth, and goings down
of the Sun, to Command me (for such an aspect have
your so wise and seasonable Motions, to my heart) to
Compile a Grammar of this Language, for the help of
others who have an heart to study and learn the same,
for the sake of Christ, and of the poor Souls of these
Ruines of Mankinde, among whom the Lord is now
about a Resurrection-work, to call them into his holy
Kingdome. I have made an Essay unto this difficult
Service, and laid together some Bones and Ribs preparatory
at least for such a work. It is not worthy the
Name of a Grammar, but such as it is, I humbly present
<246>
it to your Honours, and request your Animadversions
upon the Work, and Prayers unto the Lord for blessing
upon all Essayes and Endeavours for the promoting
of his Glory, and the Salvation of the Souls of
these poor People. Thus humbly commending your
Honours unto the blessing of Heaven and to the guidance
of the Word of God, which is able to save your
Souls, I remain,

Your Honours Servant in the Service
of our Lord Jesus,
                    JOHN ELIOT.

<247>

                              THE

                      INDIAN GRAMMAR BEGUN.

GRAMMAR is the Art or Rule of Speaking.

There be two parts of Grammar:
1. The Art of making words.
2. The Art ordering words for speech.

The art of making     } 1. By various articulate sounds.
words, is             } 2. By regular composing of them.

                                    { Syllables.
Articulate sounds are composed into {
                                    { Words.
The various articulate sounds must be distinguished
                                 By { Names.
                                    { Characters.
These Names and Characters do make the Alpha-bet.

Because the English Language is the first, and most
attainable Language which the Indians learn, he is a
learned man among them, who can Speak, Reade and
Write the English Tongue.

I therefore use the same Characters which are of most
common use in our English Books; viz. the Roman and
Italick Letters.

Also our Alpha-bet is the same with the English, saving
in these few things following.

1. The difficulty of the Rule about the Letter [/c/], by
reason of the change of its sound in the five sounds, /ca/ /ce/
/ci/ /co/ /cu/; being sufficiently helped by the Letters
[/k/ and /s/]: We therefore lay by the Letter [c], | [p.2]
<248>
saving in [/ch/]; of which there is frequent use in the Language.
Yet I do not put it out of the Alpha-bet, for the
use of it in other Languages, but the character [/ch/] next
to it, and call it [/chee/].

2. I put [/i/] Consonant into our Alpha-bet, and give it
this Character [/j/], and call /ji/ or [/gi/], as this Syllable
soundeth in the English word [{giant}]; and I place it
next after [/i/ vocal]. And I have done thus, because it
is a regular sound in the third person singular in the Imperative
Mode of Verbs, which cannot well be distinguished
without it: though I have sometimes used [/gh/] instead
of it, but it is harder and more inconvenient. The
proper sound of it is, as the English word [{age}] soundeth.
See it used Genes. 1. 3, 6, 9, 11.

3. We give (/v/) Consonant a distinct name, by putting
together (/˙/ /f/) or (/uph/), and we never use it, save when
it soundeth as it doth in the word ({save}, {have}), and place
it next after (/u/ vocal.) Both these Letters (/u/ Vocal,
and /v/ Consonant) are together in their proper sounds in
the Latine word ({uva} a Vine.)

4. We call /w/ (/wee/), because our name giveth no hint
of the power of its sound.

These Consonants (/l/. /n/. /r/.) have such a natural coincidence,
that it is an eminent variation of their dialects.

We Massachusetts pronounce the /n/. The Nipmuk
Indians pronounce /l/. And the Northern Indians pronounce
/r/. As instance:

We say    /An˙m/   (/um/ produced)  }
Nipmuk,   /Al˙m/                    }      A Dog.
Northern, /Ar˙m/                    }        So in most words.

Our Vocals are five: /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/. Dipthongs, or double
sounds, are many, and of much use.

/ai/ /au/ /ei/ /ee/ /eu/ /eau/ /oo/ /8/.

Especially we have more frequent use of [/o/ and /8/]
than other Languages have: and our [/8/] doth always
sound as it doth in these English words ({moody}, {book}.)

<249>

We use onely two Accents, and but sometime. | [p.3]

The Acute (/'/) to show which Syllable is first
produced in pronouncing of the word; which if it be not
attended, no Nation can understand their own Language:
as appeareth by the witty Conceit of the Tytere tu's.

/ˇ/ produced with the accent, is a regular distinction
betwixt the first and second persons plural of the
Suppositive Mode; as

{ /Naumog/, {If we see}: (as in {Log}.)
{ /Naumˇg/, {If ye see}: (as in {Vogue}.)

The other Accent is (/^/), which I call Nasal; and it
is used onely upon (/˘/) when it is sounded in the Nose,
as oft it is; or upon (/Ô/) for the like cause.

This is a general Rule, When two (/o/ /o/) come together,
ordinarily the first is produced; and so when
two (/8/) are together.

All the Articulate sounds and Syllables that ever I
heard (with observation) in their Language, are sufficiently
comprehended and ordered by our Alpha-bet,
and the Rules here set down.

Character.     Name.                         Character.     Name.
    a                                         n            en
    b          bee                            o
    c          see                            P            pee
    ch         chee                           q            ke˙h
    d          dee                            r            ar
    e                                         f s          es
    f          ef                             t            tee
    g          gee as in geese                u
    h                                         v            vf
    i                                         w            wee
    j          ji as in giant                 x            ex
    k          ka                             y            wy
    l          el                             z            zad
    m          em

Here be 27 Characters: The reason of increasing
the number is above.

<250>

And I have been thus far bold with the Alpha-bet,
because it is the first time of writing this Language;
and it is better to setttle our Foundation right at first,
than to have it to mend afterwards.

[p.4] | Musical sounds they also have, and perfect
Harmony, but they differ from us in sound.

There be four several sorts of Sounds or Tones
uttered by Mankinde.

1. Articulation in Speech.
2. Laughter.
3. LŠtation and Joy: of which kinde of sounds
   our Musick and Song is made.
4. Ululation, Howling, Yelling, or Mourning:
   and of that kinde of sound is their Music
   and Song made.

In which kinde of sound they also hallow and call,
when they are most vociferous.

And that it is thus, it may be perceived by this, that
their Language is so full of (/8/) and /˘/ Nasal.

They have Harmony and Tunes which they sing,
but the matter is not in Meeter.

They are much pleased to have their Language and
Words in Meeter and Rithme, as it now is in The
Singing Psalms in some poor measure, enough to
begin and break the ice withall: These they sing in
our Musicall Tone.

So much for the Sounds and Characters.

Now follows the Consideration of Syllables, and
the Art of Spelling.

THE formation of Syllables in their Language, doth
in nothing differ from the formation of Syllables in
English, and other Languages.

When I taught our Indians first to lay out a Word
into Syllables, and then according to the sound of every
Syllable to make it up with the right Letters, viz. if it
were a simple sound, then one Vocall made the Syllable:
<251>
if it were such a sound as required some of the Consonants
to make it up, then the adding of the right
Consonants either before the Vocall, or after it, or
both. They quickly apprehended and understood this
Epitomie of the Art of Spelling, and could soon learn
to Reade.

The Men, Women, and up-grown Youth do | [p.5]
thus rationally learn to Reade: but the Children
learn by rote and custome, as other Children do.

Such as desire to learn this Language, must be attentive
to pronounce right, especially to produce that
Syllable that is first to be produced; then they must
Spell by Art, and accustome their tongues to pronounce
their Syllables and Words; then learn to reade such
Books as are Printed in their Language. Legendo,
Scribendo, Loquendo, are the three means to learn
a Language.

So much for the Rule of Making Words.

Now follows the Ordering of them for Speech.

THE several sorts of words are called Parts of
Speech, which are in number Seven.

            1. The Pronoun.
2. The Noun.      3. The Adnoun or Adjective.
4. The Verb.      5. The Adverb.
            6. The Conjunction.
            7. The Interjection.

Touching these several kindes of Words, we are to
consider,

1. The formation of them asunder by themselves.
2. The construction of them, or the laying them together,
to make Sense, or a Sentence.

And thus far Grammar goeth in concatenation with
Logick: for there is a Reason of Grammar. The
laying of Sentences together to make up a Speech, is
performed by Logick: The adorning of that Speech
<252>
with Eloquence, is performed by Rhetoric. Such a use
and accord there is in these general Arts.

In the formation of words asunder by themselves,

         { 1. The general Qualifications or Affections
Consider {         of words.
         { 2. The Kindes of Words.

| [p. 6]
                   { 1. In respect of their Rise whence
The Qualifications {    they spring.
   are             { 2. In respect of their Consorts,
                   {    how they are yoked.

                        { 1. Original words: suŠ originis.
In respect of their     { 2. Ort words sprung out of other:
     Rise some are      {          { Nominals: or Verbs
                        { Chiefly  {  made out of Nouns.
                        {          { Verbals: or Nouns made
                        {          {  out of Verbs.

In respect of Consorts, { Simple words: one alone.
some are                { Compounded words: when two
                        {  or more are made into one.

This Language doth greatly delight in Compounding
of words for Abbreviation, to speak much in few words,
though they be sometimes long; which is chiefly caused
by the many Syllables which the Grammar Rule requires,
and suppletive Syllables which are of no signification,
and curious care of Euphonie.

So much for the common Affection of words.

Now follow the severall Kindes of words.

               { 1. Chief leading  { Nouns.
THERE be two   {    words;         { Verbs.
   kindes:     { 2. Such as attend upon, and belong
                    unto the chief leading words.

<253>
                {   1. Such as are proper    { Adnouns.
Attendants on   {      to each; as           { Adverbs.
    the Chief,  {   2. Such as are of common { Pronouns.
    are         {      use to both; as       { Conjunctions.

Independent Passions or Interjections come | [p.7]
under no Series or Order, but are of use in
Speech, to express the passionate minde of man.

Touching the principal parts of Speech, this may be
said in general, That Nouns are the names of Things,
and Verbs are the names of Actions; and therefore
their proper Attendants are answerable. Adnouns are
the qualities of Things, and Adverbs are the qualities
of Actions.

And hence is that wise Saying, That a Christian
must be adorned with as many Adverbs as Adjectives:
He must as well do good, as be good. When a man's
virtuous Actions are well adorned with Adverbs, every
one will conclude that the man is well adorned with
virtuous Adjectives.

1. Of the Pronoun.

BECAUSE of the common and general use of the Pronoun
to be affixed unto both Nouns, Verbs, and other
parts of Speech, and that in the formation of them;
therefore that is the first Part of Speech to be handled.

I shall give no other description of them but this,
They are such words as do express all the persons,
both singular and plural: as

      { /Neen/ {I}.            }       { /Neenawun/ or /kenawun/, {We}.
Sing. { /Ken/  {Thou}          }  Plu. { /Kenaau/ {Ye}.
      { /Noh/ or /nagum/ {He}. }       { /Nahoh/ or /Nagoh/, {They}.

There be also other Pronouns of frequent use:

As the Interrogative of persons: sing. /Howan/. pl. /Howanig/, {Who},

The Interrogative of things,;  { sing. /Uttiyeu/, or /tanyeu/.
                               { pl.  /Uttiyeush/, {Which}.

<254>

                             { sing. /Yeuoh/, {This or that man}. /Noh/.
                {of persons: { pl. /Yeug/, {These men}. /Nag/ or
                {            {    /neg/, {They}.
Demonstratives  {
                {            { /Yeu/ {This}. /Ne/ {This}.
                { of things  {
                             { /Yeush/ {These}. /Nish/ {These}.
| [p.8]
Distributives; as { /Nawhutchee/, {some}. { /Tohsuog?/  { {How many?}
                  { /Monaog/, {many}.     { /Tohsunash/ {

But because these are not of use in affixing to other
Parts of Speech, they may as well be reckoned among
Adnouns, as some do; though there is another Schesis
upon them, and they attend upon Verbs as well as Nouns.

The first and second persons are of most use in affixing
both of Nouns and Verbs, and other Parts of Speech.

The third person singular is affixed with such
Syllables as these, /Wut/. /wun/. /um/. /8/. &c. having respect
to Euphonie: And sometime the third person,
especially of Verbs, hath no affix.

These Pronouns, (/Neen/ and /Ken/) when they are
affixed, they are contracted into /Ne/ and /Ke/, and varied
in the Vocal or Vowel according to Euphonie, with the
word it is affixed unto; as /N8/, /K8/, &c.

If the word unto which it is affixed begin with a
Vocal, then a Consonant of a fitting sound is interposed,
to couple the word and his affix with an
Euphonie: as /Nut/. /kut/. /num/. /kum/, &c.

I give not Examples of these Rules, because they
will be so obvious anon, when you see Nouns and
Verbs affixed.

2. Of a Noun.

A NOUN is a Part of Speech which signifieth a thing;
or it is the name of a thing.
The variation of Nouns is not by Male and Female,
as in other Learned Languages, and in European
Nations they do.

<255>

Nor are they varied by Cases, Cadencies, and Endings:
herein they are more like to the Hebrew.
Yet there seemeth to be one Cadency or Case of the
first Declination of the form Animate, which endeth
in /oh/, /uh/, or /ah/; viz. when an animate Noun followeth
a Verb transitive whose object that he acteth
upon is without himself. For Example: Gen. 1. 16.
the last word is /anogqsog/, {stars}. It is an Erratum:
it should be /anogqsoh/; because it followeth the
Verb /ayim/, {He made}. Though it be an Erratum | [p. 9]
in the Press, it is the fitter in some respects
for an Example.

In Nouns,  { 1. Genera, or kindes of Nouns.
consider   { 2. The qualities or affections thereof.

The kindes of Nouns are two; according to which
there be two Declensions of Nouns, for the variation of
the number.

Numbers are two: Singular and Plural.

The first kinde of Nouns is, when the. thing signified
is a living Creature.

The second kinde is, when the thing signified is not
a living Creature.

Therefore I order them thus:
There be two forms or declensions  { Animate.
of Nouns:                          { Inanimate.

The Animate form or declension is, when the thing
signified is a living Creature; and such Nouns do
alwayes make their Plural in (/og/); as,

/Wosketomp/, {Man}. /Wosketompaog/. (/a/) is but for Euphonie.
/Mittamwossis/, {A Woman}. /Mittamwossissog/.
/Nunkomp/, {A young Man}. /Nunkompaog/.
/Nunksqau/, {A Girl}. /Nunksqauog/.
/Englishman/. /Englishmanog/.
/Englishwoman/. /Englishwomanog/.
So /Manit/, {God}. /Manitioog/.
/Mattannit/, {The Devil}. /Mattannittoog/.
So /Ox/, /Oxesog/. /Horse/, /Horsesog/.

<256>

The Stars they put in this form.
/Anogqs/, {A Star}. /Anogqsog/.
/Muhhog/, {The Body}. /Muhhogk8og/.
/Psukses/, {A little Bird}. /Psuksesog/.
/Ahtuk/, {A Deer}. /Ahtuhquog/.
/Mukquoshim/, {A Wolf}. /Mukquoshimwog/.
/Mosq/, {A Bear}. /Mosquog/.
/Tummunk/, { The Beaver}. /Tummunkquaog/.
/Puppinashim/, { A Beast}. /Puppinashimwog/.
/Ask8k/, {A Snake} or {Worm}. /Ask8kquog/.
/Namohs/, {A Fish}. /Namohsog/. &c.

Some few exceptions I know.

| [p.10]
2. The Inanimate form or declension of
Nouns, is when the thing signified is not a living
Creature: and these make the Plural in /ash/; as

/Hussun/, { A Stone}. /Hussunash/.
/Qussuk/, { A Rock}. /Qussukquanash/.

Of this form are all Vegitables:

/Mehtug/, {A Tree}. /Mehtugquash/.
/Moskeht/, {Grass}. /Mosketuash/.

And of this form are all the parts of the Body: as
/Muskesuk/, {The Eye} or {Face}. /Muskesukquash/.
/Mehtauog/, {An Ear}. /Mehtauogwash/.
/Meepit/, {A Tooth}. /Meepitash/.
/Meenan/, {The Tongue}. /Meenanash/.
/Mussissitt8n/, {A Lip}. /Mussissitt8nash/.
/Mutt8n/, {A Mouth}. /Mutt8nash/.
/Menutcheg/, {A Hand}. /Menutchegash/.
/Muhpit/, {An Arm}. /Muhpittenash/.
/Muhkont/, {A Leg}. /Muhkontash/.
/Musseet/, {The Foot}. /Musseetash/.

Of this form are all Virtues, and all Vices: as

/Waantamoonk/, {Wisdome}. /Waantam8ongash/, or /onganash/.

All Verbals are of this form, which end in /onk/, and
make their Plural in /ongash/, or in /onganash/.

<257>

All Virtues and Vices (so far as at present I discern)
are Verbals, from their activity and readiness to turn
into Verbs.

All Tools and Instruments of Labour, Hunting,
Fishing, Fowling, are of this form. All Apparel,
Housing: All Fruits, Rivers, Waters, &c.

So much for the kindes of Nounes.

The common Affections or Qualifications are two:
{ 1. The affixing of the Noun with the Pronoun.
{ 2. The ranging them into several Ranks.

1. The way of affixing of Nouns, is the putting | [p.11]
or using of the Noun in all the three persons,
Singular and Plural.

This manner of speech being a new thing to us that
know the European or Western Languages, it must be
demonstrated to us by Examples.

/Metah/, {the Heart}.

Sing.
{ /Nuttah/, {my heart}.
{ /Kuttah/, {thy heart}.
{ /Wuttah/, {his heart}.
Pl.
{ /Nuttahhun/, {our heart}.
{ /Kuttahhou/, {your heart}.
{ /Wuttahhou/, {their heart}.

/Menutcheg/, {A Hand}.

/Sing.
{ /Nunnutcheg/, {my hand}.
{ /Kenutcheg, {thy hand}.
{ /Wunnutcheg/, {his hand}.
Pl.
{ /Nunnutcheganun/, {our hand}.
{ /Kenuchegan8/, {your hand}.
{ /Wunnutchegan8/, {their hand}.

Sing.
{ /Nunnutcheganash/, {my hands}.
{ /Kenutchegash/, or /kenutcheganash/, {thy hands}.
{ /Wunnutchegash/, or /wunnutcheganash/, {his hands}.

Pl.
{ /Nunnutcheganunnonut/, {our hands}.
{ /Kenutchegan8wout/, {your hands}.
{ /Wunnutchegan8wout/, {their hands}.

/Wătu/, {A House}.

Sing.
{ /Neek/ {my house},
{ /Keek/, {thy house}.
{ /Week/, {his house}.

Pl.
{ /Neekun/, {our house}.
{ /Keekou/, {your house}.
{ /Weekou/, {their house}.

<258>

/ut/, {in}.

Sing.
{ /Neekit/, {in my house}.
{ /Keekit/, {in thy house}.
{ /Weekit/, {in his house}.

Pl.
{ /Neekunonut/, {in our house},
{ /Keekuwout/,  {in your house}.
{ /Weekuwout/, or /wekuwomut/, {in his house}.

Hence we corrupt this word {Wigwam}.

So much may at present suffice for the affixing of Nouns.

| [p.12] Now for the ranging them into ranks.
                               { The Primitive.
There be three Ranks of Nouns; { The Diminutive.
                               { The Possessive.

The same Noun may be used in all these Ranks.

The primitive Rank expresses the thing as it is; as
/Nunkomp/, {a Youth}. /Nunksqua/, {a Girl}. /Ox/. /Sheep/.
/Horse/. /Pig/. So /Hassun/, {a stone}. /Mehtug/, {a tree}.
/Moskeht/, {grass} or {herb}.

2. The diminutive Rank of Nouns doth lessen the
thing, and expresses it to be a little one; and it is
formed by adding, with a due Euphonie (/es/) or (/emes/)
unto the primitive Noun. For example, I shall use
the same Nouns named in the first Rank, here in the
second Rank: as /Nunkompaes/ or /emes/. /Nunksquaes/,
or /emes/. /Oxemes/. /Sheepsemes/. /Horsemes/. /Pigsemes/.
/Hassunemes/. /Mehtugques/, or /Mehtugquemes/.
/Moskehtuemes/.

And so far as I perceive, these two endings (/es/ and
(/emes/) are degrees of diminution: (/emes/) is the least.

3. The possessive Rank of Nouns, is when the
person doth challenge an interest in the thing. Hence,
as the other Ranks may be affixed, this must be affixed
with the Pronoun.

And it is made by adding the Syllable (/eum/ or /8m/, or
/um/) according to Euphonie, unto the affixed Noun.
For Example: /Num-Manitt8m/, {my God}. /Nuttineneum/,
{my man}. /Nunnunkomp8m/. /Nunnunksquaeum/. /Nutoxineum/.
/Nusheepseum/. /Nuthorsesum/. /Nuppigsum/.

<259>

/Nuthassunneum/. /Nummehtugk8m/. /Nummoskehteum/.
/Nummoskehteumash/.

Both the primitive Noun, and the diminutive Noun,
may be used in the form possessive; as /Nutsheepsemeseum/,
and the like.

Nouns may be turned into Verbs two wayes:

1. By turning the Noun into the Verb-substantive
form: as /Wosketompo8/ {He became a man}. Of this
see more in the Verb Substantive.

2. All Nouns that end in /onk/, as they come | [p.13]
from Verbs by adding (/onk/), so they will turn
back again into Verbs, by taking away (/onk/) and forming
the word according to the Rule of Verbs; as

/Waantamoonk/ is {Wisdome}: take away /onk/, and then it may be
formed /N8waantam/, {I am wise}. /K8waantam/, {Thou wise}, &c.
       /Waantam/, {He wise}, &c.

3. Of Adnouns.

AN Adnoun is a part of Speech that attendeth upon
a Noun, and signifieth the Qualification thereof.

The Adnoun is capable of both the Animate and
Inanimate forms: and it agreeth with his leading
Noun, in form, number, and person.

For example: Rev. 4.4 there is /Neesneechagkodtash
nabo yau appuongash/ {Twenty-four Thrones}. And
/Neesneechagkodtog yauog Eldersog/, {Twenty-four
Elders.}  Here be two Nouns of the two several forms,
Animate and Inanimate; and the same Adnoun is
made to agree with them both.

The Inanimate form of Adnouns end some in /i/, and
Some in /e/.

<260>

The Animate form in /es/, or /esu/: and those are
turned into Verbs by taking the affix. As

/Wompi/, {White}. /Wompiyeuash/.
/M8i/, {Black}. /M8eseuash/.
/Menuhki/, {Strong}. /Menuhkiyeuash/.
/N8chumwi/, {Weak}. /N8chumwiyeuash/.

The same words in the Animate form:

/Wompesu/. /Wompesuog/.
/M8esu/. /M8esuog/.
/Menuhkesu/. /Menuhkesuog/.
/N8chumwesu/. /N8chumwesuog/.

Put the affix to these, and they are Verbs.

| [p.14] NUMERALS belong unto Adnouns, and in them
there is something remarkable.

From the number 5 and upward, they adde a worde
suppletive, which signifieth nothing, but receiveth the
Grammatical variation of the Declension, according to
the things numbered, Animate or Inanimate. The
Additional is (/tohs˙/) or (/tahshă/), which is varied
(/tohs˙og/, /tohs˙ash/, or /tohshinash/.)

For Example:

1. /Nequt/.
2. /Neese/.
3  /Nish/.
4  /Yau/.
5  /Napamma tahshe/ { /tohsuog/.
     ~               { /tohsaash/.
6  /Nequtta tahshe/.
7  /Nesausuk tahshe/.
8  /Shwosuk tahshe/.
9  /Paskoogun tahshe/.
10 /Piuk/. /Piukqussuog/, /Piukqussuash/.

Then from 10 to 20 they adde afore the Numeral
(/nab/ or /nabo/) and then it is not needful to adde the
following additional, though sometimes they do it.

<261>

As for Example:

11  /Nabo nequt/.
12  /Nabo neese/.
13  /Nabo nish/.
14  /Nabo yau/.
15  /Nabo napanna/.
16  /Nabo nequtta/.
17  /Nabo nesausuk/.
18  /Nabo shwosuk/.
19  /Nabo paskoogun/.
20 /Neesneechag/ { /kodtash/.
                 { /kodtog/.

Then upwards they adde to /Neesneechag/, the single
Numbers to 30, &c.

30  /Nishwinchag/. /kodtog/, /kodtash/.
40  /Nauunchag/, /kodtog/, /kodtash/.
50  /Napannatahshinchag/   /kodtog/, /kodtash/.
60  /Nequtta tahshinchag/  /kodtog/, /kodtash/.
70  /Nesausuk tahshinchag/ /kodtog/, /kodtash/.
80  /Shwosuk tahshinchag/  /kodtog/, /kodtash/.              | [p.15]
90  /Paskoogun tahshinchag/ /kodtog/, /kodtash/,
100 /Nequt pasuk k8og/. /k8ash/.

1000 /Nequt muttannonganog/ { /kodtog/,  } or { /kussuog/.
                            { /kodtash/. }    { /kussuash/.

The Adnoun is frequently compounded with the
Noun and then usually they are contracted: as

/Womposketomp/, {A white man}.
/M8sketomp/, {A black man}.
/Menuhkoshketomp/, {A strong man}.
/Meuuhkekont/, {A strong leg}. /Qunuhtug/, of /qunni/, {long}.
/Mehtug/, {Wood} or {Tree}. And this word is used for {a Pike}.

When the Noun becometh a Verb, then the Adnoun
becometh an Adverb.

There is no form of comparison that I can yet
finde, but degrees are expressed by a word signifying
more: as /Anue menuhkesu/, {More strong}: And /Nano/
{More and more}. /M8cheke/, {Much}. /Peesik/ or
/Peasik/, {Small}.



<262>

4. Of the Verb.

A VERB is when the thing signified is an Action.

There be two sorts of Verbs. The Verb { Substantive.
                                      { Active.

The Verb Substantive, is when any thing hath the
signification of the Verb Substantive added to it: as
({am, art, is, are, was, were}) &c. Actuall being is
above the nature of a Noun, and beneath the nature of
a Verb Active.

We have no compleat distinct word for the Verb
Substantive, as other Learned Languages, and our
English Tongue have, but it is under a regular composition
whereby many words are made Verb Substantive.

| [p.16]  All may be referred to three sorts, so far as yet
I see.

1. The first sort of Verb Substantives is made by adding
any of these Terminations to the word, /yeu8/, /a8/,
/o8/; with due Euphonie: And this is so, be the word a
Noun; as /Wosketompo8/, {He is a man}: Or Adnoun;
as /Wompiyeu8/, {It is white}: Or be the word an Adverb,
or the like; as James 5. 12. /Mattayeu8utch/, {Let it be
nay}: /Nuxyeu8utch/, {Let it be yea}. The words in the
Text are spelled with respect to pronunciation, more
than to Grammaticall composition: here I spell them
with respect to Grammaticall composition. See more
Examples of this, Exod. 4.3, 4, 6, 7.

2. The second sort of Verb Substantives is when the
animate Adnoun is made the third person of the Verb,
and so formed as a Verb: as /Wompesu/, {White}:
/Menuhkesu/, {Strong}; may be formed as a Verb:
/N8wompes/, /K8wompes/, /Wompesu/. And so the
like words.

And of this sort are all Adnouns of Vertue or Vice:
as /Waantam/, {Wise}: /Ass8tu/, {Foolish}, &c.

Whatever is affirmed to be, or denied to be, or if it be
asked if it be, or expressed to be made to be; All such
words may be Verb Substantives. I say, may be, because


<263>

there be other wayes in the Language to express such
a sense by. But it may be thus.

3. The third sort are Verb Substantive passive,
when the Verb Substantive ({am, is, was}, &c.) is so
annexed to a Verb Active, that the person affixed is the
object of the act: as /N8wadchanit/, {I am kept}.

So much for the Verb Substantive.

Now followeth the Verb Active.

A Verb Active is when the word signifieth a compleat
action, or a casuall power exerted.

Verbs inceptive or inchoatives, I find not; such a
notion is expressed by another word added to the Verb,
which signifieth {to begin}, or {to be about to do it}.

Also when the Action is doubled, or frequented,
&c. this notion hath not a distinct form, but is    | [p.17]
expressed by doubling the first Syllable of the
word: as /Mohmoeog/, {they oft met}; /Sasabbathdayeu/,
{every Sabbath}.

There be two sorts or forms of Verbs Active:
{ 1. The Simple form.
{ 2. The Suffix form.

The Simple form of the Verb Active, is when the act
is conversant about a Noun inanimate onely: as

/N8wadchanumunneek/, {I keep my house}.

And this Verb may take the form of an Adnoun: as
/N8wadchanumunash n8wăatchimineash/, {I keep my corn}.

Or every person of this Verb, at least in the Indicative
Mode, will admit the plural Number of the Noun
inanimate.

The Suffix form of the Verb Active, is when the act
is conversant about animate Nouns onely; or about
both animate and inanimate also: as

/K8wadchansh/, {I keep thee}.
/K8wadchanumoush/, {I keep it for thee}.


<264>

There be five Concordances of the Suffix form Active,
wherein the Verb doth receive a various formation. I
think there be some more, but I have beat out no more.

The reason why I call them Concordances, is, Because
the chief weight and strength of the Syntaxis of this
Language, lyeth in this eminent manner of formation
of Nouns and Verbs, with the Pronoun persons.

1. The first Concordance is, when the object of the
act is an animate Noun. I call it, The Suffix animate
object: as

/K8wadchansh/, {I keep thee}.

2. The Suffix animate mutual: when animates are
each others object: as

/N8wadchanittimun/, {We keep each other}.

This form ever wanteth the singular Number.

3. The Suffix animate end, and inanimate object: as

/K8wadchanumoush/, {I keep it for thee}; or, {for thy use}.

| [p.18]

4. The Suffix animate form social: as
/K8weechewadchanumwomsh/, {I keep it with thee}.

5. The Suffix form advocate or in stead form, when
one acteth in the room or stead of another: as

/K8wadchanumwanshun/, {I keep it for thee}; {I act in thy stead}.

This form is of great use in Theologie, to express
what Christ hath done for us: as

/Nunnupp8wonuk/, {He died for me}.
/Kenupp8wonuk/, {He died for thee}.
/Kenupp8wonukqun/, {He died for us}.
/Kenupp8wonuk8/, {He died for you}.     &c.

All these forenamed forms of Verbs, both Verb Substantives
and Verbs Active, both Simple and Suffix, may
be varied under three distinct forms of variation; viz.

{ Affirmative ; when the act is affirmed.
{ Negative: when the act is denied.
{ Interrogative: when the act is question'd.


<265>

Again, many of these forms may also be varied in a
form causative, in all cases where the e~fficient is capable
to be compelled, or caused to act.

All these will be more conspicuous in the Paradigms,
or Examples.

To make compleat work, I should set down many
examples.

But I shall (at present) set down onely two examples:
One of the Simple form Active, which may generally
serve for all the Verb Substantives.

The second Example of the Suffix animate form, which
may generally serve for all the Concordances of Verbs suffixed.
Even as the Meridian of Boston may generally
serve for all New-England: And the Meridian of London
may generally serve for all England.

And these will be enough to busy the heads of Learners
for a while.

Note this, That all Verbs cannot be formed | [p.19]
through all these forms, but such Verbs as in
reason of Speech are useable all these wayes, which sundry
Verbs are not; as, {I sleep, eat, piss}, &c.

Before I come to the Paradigms, there be other general
considerations about Verbs.


In Verbs consider { 1. Divers Modes of the action.
                  { 2. Divers Times of the action.

First, The Modes of actions in this language are five.

1. The Indicative, Demonstrative, or Interrogative
Mode, which doth fully assert the action or deny it, or enquire
if it be asserted:

   { /N8wadchanumun/, {I do keep it}.
As { /N8wadchanum8un/, {I do not keep it}.
   { /N8wadchanumunas/, {Do I keep it?}

2. The Imperative, or Hortative, or Praying and Blessing
Mode, is when the action is Commanded, or Exhorted


<266>

to be done, or Prayed for. When a Superiour speaks in
this Mode, he commands. When an Inferiour speaks in
this Mode, he prayes and intreats. When a minister
speaks in this Mode, he exhorts, and blesseth.

/Wadchansh/, {Keep thou}.
/Wadchaneh/, {Keep me}.

3. The Optative, Wishing, or Desiring Mode, when
one desireth the action to be done: as

/N8waadchanumun toh/, {I wish or desire to keep it}.

4. The Subjunctive, or rather the Supposing, or Suppositive
Mode, when the action is onely supposed to be; as
in these three expressions:

{ If it be.
{ When it is.
{ It being.

And this third sense and meaning of this Mode of the
Verb, doth turn this Mode into a Participle, like an Adnoun,
very frequently.

| [p.20]

5. The Indefinite Mode, which doth onely assert
the action without limitation of person or
time; and it is made of the Indicative Mode by adding
the termination (/ßt/) and taking away the suffix: as

/Wadchanumunat/, {To keep}.

There is another Mode of the Verb in reason of speech,
and in some other Languages, viz. The Potential, which
doth render the action in a possibility to be. But this
Language hath not such a Mode, but that notion is expressed
by a word signifying ({may}) to the Indicative
Mode. The usual word with us is (/woh/) {may} or {can}.

All these Modes of the Verb are timed by Tenses, saving
the Indefinite Mode, and that is unlimited.

The times are two; Present, and Past. The time to
come is expressed by a word signifying futurity, added to
the Indicative Mode, as (/mos/, /pish/, {shall}, or {will}).


<267>

In the Roman Language there do belong unto this Indefinite
Mode, gerundive, lofty, and vapouring Expressions;
also supine, sluggish, dull, and sunk-hearted Expressions.
And though the spirit of this People, viz. the vapouring
pride of some, and the dull-hearted supinity of others,
might dispose them to such words and expressions, yet I
cannot find them out.

As Nouns are often turned into Verbs, so Verbs are
often turned into Nouns; and a frequent way of it is
by adding (/onk/) to the Verb: as

/N8wompes/, {I am white}.
/K8wompes/, {Thou art white}.
/N8wompesuonk/, {My whiteness}.
/K8wompesuonk/, {Thy whiteness}.

Every person of the Verb that is capable of such a
change in the reason of Speech may so be turned into a
Noun singular or plural.

Before I set down the Examples of Formation of Verbs,
I will finish a few Observations about the remaining Parts
of Speech.

| [p. 21.]

5. Of Adverbs.

An Adverb is a word that attendeth upon the Verb,
and signifieth the quality of the action, by Extension, Diminution,
Rectitude, Curvation, Duration, Cessation, &c.
according to the various qualities of all sorts of actions.

Adverbs do usually end in (/ń/ or /u/), as /wame/ or /wamu/,
{All}: /Menuhke/ or /Menuhku/, {Strongly}.

The several sorts of Adverbs (according as Learned
Grammarians have gathered them together) are

1. Of time. /Yeuveu/, {Now}. /Wunnonkou/, {Yesterday}.
/Saup/, {To morrow}. /Ahquompak/, {When}. /Paswu/, {Lately}.


<268>

/N˘adtuk/, {A long time}. /Teanuk/, {Presently}. /Kuttumma/,
{Very lately}.

2. Of place. /Uttiyeu/, {Where}. /Naut/, {There}. /Anomut/,
{Within}.  /Woskeche/, {Without}. /Onkoue/, {Beyond.}
/Negonnu/, {First}. /Wuttßt/, {Behinde.}

3. Of order. /Negonnu/, {First}. /Nahoht˘eu/, {Second.}
/Nishwu/, {Third}, &c.

4. Of Asking. /Sun/, /Sunnummatta/; {Is it?} or {Is it
not?} /Tohwutch/, {Why.}

5. Of Calling. /Hoh/. /Chuh/.

/6. Affirming. /Nux/, {Yea}. /Wunnamuhkut/, {Truely.}

7. Denying. /Matta/, /Matchaog/, {No}. Also /Mo/
sometimes signifieth {No}. They have no Adverbs of
Swearing, nor any Oath, that I can yet finde: onely
we teach them to Swear before a Magistrate {By the great
and dreadful name of the Lord}. The word we make
for swearing, signifieth {to speak vehemently}.

8. Of exhorting or Encouraging. /Ehhoh/, /Hah/.

9. Of Forbidding. /Ahque/, {Beware, Do not.}

10. Of Wishing. /Woi/, /Napehnont/, {Oh that it
were}, /Toh/.

11. Of Gathering together. /Moeu/, {Together}. /Yeu
nogque/, {This way-ward}. /Ne nogque/, {That way-ward}.
/Kesukquieu/, {Heaven-ward}. /Ohkeiyeu/, {Earth-ward.}

12. Of Choosing. /Anue/, {More rather}. /Teaogku/,
{Rather, unfinished}. /Nahen/, {Almost}. /Asquam/, {not yet}.
[p.22] |
13. Of Continuation. /Ash/, {Still.}

14. Of Shewing. /Kusseh/, {Behold.}

15. Of Doubting. /Pagwodche/, {It may be}. /Toh/,
{It may be.}

16. Of Likeness. /Netatup/, {Like so}. /Nemehkuh/,
{So}. /Neane/, {As.}

17. Of unexpected Hap. /Tiadche/, {Unexpectedly.}

18. Of Quality. /Wunnegen/. /Matchet/. /Waantamwe/,
&c.

Of this kinde are all Virtues and Vices, &c.

Adverbs are oft turned into Adnouns, especially when
his Verb is turned into a Noun.

<269>

6. Of the Conjunction.

A Conjunction is a Part of Speech to joyn Words
and Sentences: As

Causatives. /Wutch/, /wutche/, /newutche/.   {For, from,
because}. /Yeu waj/, {For this cause.}

Disjunctives. /Asuh/, {Or.}

Discretives. /Qut/, {But.}

Suppositives. /Tohneit/, {If.}

Exceptives. /Ishkont/, {Least}. /Chaubohkish/, {Except},
or {besides}. /Kuttumma/, {Unless.}

Diversatives. /Tohk˘nogque/, {Although.}

Of Possibility. /Woh/, {May} or {Can.}

Of Place. /In/, /en/, /ut/, /ßt/. {In}, {At} or {To}.

7. Of Interjections.

AN Interjection is a word or sound that uttereth the
passion of the minde, without dependance on other words.

Of Sorrow. /Woi/, /8wee./
Of Marvelling. /Hˇ/, /h8/.
Of Disdaining. /Quah/.
Of Encouraging. /Hah/, /Ehoh/.

There be also suppletive Syllables of no signi|fication,    [p. 23]
but for ornament of the word: as /tit/, /tin/,
/tinne/; and these in way of an Elegancy, receive the
affix which belongeth to the Noun or Verb following;
as /nuttit/, /kuttit/, /wuttit/, /nuttin/, /kuttin/, /wuttin/, /nuttinne/,
/kuttinne/, /wuttinne/.

Other Languages have their significant suppletives
for Elegancy: and some of our English Writers begin
so to use [{Why}], but I conceive it to be a mistake.
Our suppletive is rather [{Weh}], and [{Why}] is a significant
word. It oft puts the Reader to this inconvenience,
to stay and look whether it be significant or not;

<270>

and some are stumbled at it. It is seldome an Elegancy,
to make a significant word a meer suppletive.

So much for the formation of words asunder.

For the Construction of words together, I will give
three short Rules.

1. WHEN two Nouns come together, one of them is
turned into a kinde of an Adverb, or Adnoun, and that
is an Elegancy in the Language : of which see frequent
Examples. See 1 Pet. 2.2. /Pahke sogkodtungane
wuttinnowaonk/, {The pure milkie word}, for {milk of the
word}. The like may be observed a thousand times.

2. When two Verbs come together, the latter is the Infinitive
Mode: as in the same 1 Pet. 2.5. /K8weekikonitteamw8
sephausinat/. {Ye are built, &c. to sacrifice},
&c. And a thousand times more this Rule occurs.

3. When a Noun or a Verb is attended upon with an
Adnoun, or Adverb, the affix which belongeth to the
Noun or Verb is prefixed to the Adnoun or Adverb; as in
the same Chapter, 1 Pet. 2.9. /Ummonchanatamwe
wequaiyeumut/, {His Marvellous light}: The affix of {Light}
is prefixed to {marvellous}. /K8waantamwe ket8hkam/.
{Thou speakest wisely}: The affix of {speaking} is prefixed
to {wisely}. This is a frequent Elegancy in the Language.

But the manner of the formation of the Nouns and
Verbs have such a latitude of use, that there needeth
little other Syntaxis in the Language.

[p.24] I shall now set down Examples of Verbs : and
first of the Simple form. And here

First, I shall set down a Verb Active, whose object is
Inanimate:

as /N8wadchanumun/, {I keep it}. (Be it tool or garment.)

And secondly, I shall set down a Verb Substantive:

as /N8waantam/, {I am wise}.

Both these I shall set down Parallel in two Columes.

<271>

The form Affirmative.

Indicative Mode.
Present tense.

{I keep it}.

Sing.
/N8wadchanumun/
/K8wadchanumun/
/8wadchanumun/.

Plur.
/N8wadchanumumun/
/K8wadchanumumw8/
/Wadchanumwog/.

Present tense.

{I am Wise}.

Sing.
/N8waantam/
/K8waantam/
/Waantam noh/.

Plur.
/N8waantamumun/
/K8waantamumw8/
/Waantamwog/.

PrŠter tense.

Sing.
/N8wadchanumunap/
/K8wadchaaumunap/
/8wadchnanumunap/.

plur.
/N8wadchanumumunnˇnup/
/K8wadchanumumwop/
/Wadchanumuppanneg/: or
/8wadchanummußop/.

PrŠter tense.

Sing.
/N8waantamup/
/K8waantamup/
/Waantamup/.

plur.
/N8waantamumunnˇnup/
/K8waantam˙mwop/
/Waantamuppanneg/.

The imperative Mode, when it Commnands or Exhorts
it wanteth the first person singular : but when we Pray
in this Mode, as alwayes we do, then it hath the first
person; as, Let me be wise; but there is no formation
of the word to express it; yet it may be expressed
by adding this word unto the Indicative Mode [p.25]
[/pÔ/], as, /PÔn8waantam/, {Let me be wise}. Our
usual formnation of the Imperative Mode is without the
first person singular, casting away the affix.

Imperative Mode.

Present tense.

Sing.
/Wadchanish/
/Wadchanitch/.

plur.
/Wadchanumuttuh/
/Wadchanum8k/
/Wadchanumahettich/.

Present tense.

Sing.
/Waantash/
/Waantaj/.

plur.
/Waantamuttuh/
/Waantam8k/
/Waantamohettich/.

The Imperative Mode cannot admit of any other
time than the Present.

<272>


The Optative Mode.

Present tense.

Sing.
/N8wßadchßnumun-toh/
/K8wßadchanumun-toh/
/8waadchnanumun-toh/.

plur.
/N8waadchanumunnan-toh/
/K8waadchanumunnan-toh/
/8waadchanumuneau-toh/.

Present tense.

Sing.
/N8wßaantamun-toh/
/K8wßaantamun-toh/
/8wßaantamun-toh/.

plur.
/N8wßaantamunan-toh/
/K8wßaantamuneau-toh/ [?]
/8wßaantamuneau-toh/.

PrŠter tense.

Sing.
/N8waadchanumunaz-toh/
/K8waadchanumunaz-toh/
/8waadchanumunaz-toh/.

Plu.
/N8waadchanumunannonuz-toh/
/K8waadchanumunaˇuzčtoh/
/8waadchanumunaˇuz-toh/.

PrŠter tense.

Sing.
/N8wßaantamunaz-toh/
/K8wßaantamunaz-toh/
/8wßaantamunaz-toh/.

Plu.
/N8wßaantam˙nan˘iz-toh/
/K8wßaantamuna˘iz-toh/
/8wßaantamuna˘iz-toh/.

It seems their desires are slow, but strong ;
Because they be utter'd double-breath't, and long.

[p.26]

The Suppositive Mode: which usually flats the first
Vocal and layes by the affix.

Present tense.

Sing.
/Wadchanumon/
/Wadchanuman/
/Wadchanuk/.

plur.
/Wadchanumog/
/Wadchanumˇg/
/Wadchanumahettit/.

Present tense.

Sing.
/Waantamon/
/Waantaman/
/Waantog/.

plur.
/Waantamog/
/Waantamˇg/
/Waantamohettit/.

PrŠter tense.

Sing.
/Wadchanumos/
/Wadchanum˘sa/
/Wadchanukis/.

plur.
/Wadchanumogkus/
/Wadchanumˇgkus/
/Wadchanumahettis/.

PrŠter tense.

Sing.
/Waantamos/
/Waantamas/
/Waantogkis/.

plur.
/Waantamogkis/
/Waantamˇgkis/
/Waantamohettis/.

<273>

The Indefinite Mode.

/Wadchanumunßt/

/Waantamunßt/.


Indicative Mode. The form Negative, which is varied
from the Affirmative by interposing [8].

Present tense.

Sing.
/N8wadchanum8un/
/K8wadchanum8un/
/8wadchanum8un/.

plur.
/N8wadchanum8unnonup/
/K8wadchanum8wop/
/Wadchanum8og/.

Present tense.

Sing.
/N8waantam8h/
/K8waantam8h/
/Waantam8h/.

plur.
/N8waantam8mun/
/K8waantam8mw8/
/Waantam8og/.

PrŠter tense.

Sing.
/N8wadchanum8unap/
/K8wadchanum8unap/
/8wadchanum8unap/.

Plu.
/N8wadchanum8unnanˇnup/
/K8wadchanum8wop/
/Wadchanum8panneg/.

PrŠter tense.

Sing.
/N8waantam8p/
/K8waantam8p/
/8waantamop/.

Plu.
/N8waantam8munnonup/
/K8waantam8mwop/
/Waantam8panneg/.


[p.27]

The Imperative Mode of the Negative simple form.

Present tense.

Sing.
/Wadchanuhkon/
/Wadchanuhkitch/.

plur.
/Wadchanum8uttuh/
/wadchanum8hteˇk/
/wadchanumohettekitch/.

Present tense.

Sing.
/Waantukon/
/Waantukitch/.

plur.
/Waantam8uttuh/
/waantam8hteˇk/
/waantamˇhettekitch/.

The Optative Mode is of seldome use, and very difficult,
therefore I pass it by.

<274>


The Suppositive Mode of the Simple form.

Present tense.

Sing.
/Wadchanum8un/
/Wadchanum8an/
/Wadchan8g./

Plur.
/Wadchanum8og/
/Wadchanum8ˇg/
/Wadchanum8ahettit/, or /8hetteg/.

Present tense.

Sing.
/Waantam8on/
/Waantam8an/
/Waantamoog/.

Plur.
/Waantam8og/
/Waantam8ˇg/
/Waantam8ohettit/, or /8hetteg/.

PrŠter tense.

Sing.
/Wadchanum8os/
/Wadchanum8osa/
/Wadchanum8gkis/.

Plur.
/Wadchanum8ogkus/
/Wadchanum8ˇgkus/
/Wadchanum8ahettis/.

PrŠter tense.

Sing.
/Waantam8os/
/Waantam8as/
/Waantam8gkis/.

Plur.
/Waantam8ogkus/
/Waantam8ˇgkus/
/Waantam8ohettis/.

The Indefinite Mode of the Simple form Negative.

/Wanchanum8unßt/ [sic]
/Waantam8unßt/.

The Simple form Interrogative, is formed onely in the
Indicative Mode: All Questions are alwayes asked in
this Mode of the Verb, and in no other; and it is formed
by adding [/ßs/] to the Affirmative.

Indicative Mode.

Present tense.

Sing.
/N8wadchanumunßs/
/K8wadchanumunßs/
/8wadchanumunßous/

Present tense.

Plur.
/N8wadchanumunnanonus/
/K8wadchanumunnaˇus/
/8wadchanumunnaˇus Nag/.

<275>

[p.28]

The Suffix form animate Affirmative.

Here I carry in a Parallel our English Verb ({Pay}) that so any
may distinguish betwixt what is Grammar, und what belongs to
the word. And remember ever to pronounce (pay), because else you
will be ready to read it (pau). Also remember, that (/Paum/) is the
radicall word, and all the rest is Grammar. In this remarkable
way of speech, the Efficient of the Act, and the Object, and sometimes
the End also, are in a regular composition comprehended in
the Verb: and there is no more difficulty in it, when use hath
brought our Notion to it, than there is in other Languages, if so
much.

Indicative Mode. Present tense.

1 sing.
{I keep thee},
/K8wadchansh/
{I keep him},
/N8wadchan/.
{I keep you},
/K8wadchanunumw8/.
{I keep them},
/N8wadchanˇog/.

2 sing./
{Thou keepest me},
/K8wadchaneh/.
{Thou keepest him},
/K8wadchan/.
{Thou keepest us},
/K8wadchanimun/.
{Thou keepest them},
/K8wadchanoog/.

3 sing./
{He keepeth me},
/N8wadchanuk/.
{He keepeth thee},
/K8wadchanuk/.
{He keepeth him},
/8wadchanuh/.
{He keepeth us},
/K8wadchanukqun/.
{He keepeth you},
/K8wadchanuk8/.
{He keepeth them},
/8wadchanuh/.

1 sing.
{I pay thee},
/Kuppaumush/.
{I pay him},
/Nuppayum/.
{I pay you},
/Kuppaumunumw8/.
{I pay them},
/Nuppaum˘og/.

2 sing./
{Thou payest me},
/Kuppaumeh/.
{Thou payest him},
/Kuppaum/.
{Thou payest us},
/Kuppaumimun/.
{Thou payest them},
/Kuppaumoog/.

3 sing./
{He payeth me},
/Nuppaumuk/.
{He payeth thee},
/Kuppaumuk/.
{He payeth him},
/Uppaumuh/.
{He payeth us},
/Kuppaumukqun/.
{He payeth you},
/Kuppaumukou/.
{He payeth them},
/Uppaumuh nah/.

<276>
[p.29]

Indicative Mode.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{We keep thee},
/K8wadchanunumun/.
{We keep him},
/n8wadchanoun/.
{We keep you},
/k8wadchanunumun (wame)/
{We keep them},
/n8wadchanˇunonog/.

2 plur.
{Ye keep me},
/K8wadchanimw8/.
{Ye keep him},
/k8wadchanau/.
{Ye keep us},
/k8wadchanimun/.
{Ye keep them},
/k8wadchanoog/.

3 plur.
{They keep me},
/N8wadchanukquog/.
{They keep thee},
/k8wadchanukquog/.
{They keep him},
/8wadchanouh/.
{They keep us},
/n8wadchanukqunnonog/.
{They keep you},
/k8wadchanuk8oog/.
{They keep them},
/8wadchanouh nah/.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{We pay thee},
/Kuppaumunumun/.
{We pay him},
/nuppaumoun/.
{We pay you},
/kuppaumunumun/.
{We pay them},
/nuppaumounˇnog/.

2 plur.
{Ye pay me},
/Kuppaumimw8/.
{Ye pay him},
/kuppaumau/.
{Ye pay us},
/kuppaumimun/.
{Ye pay them},
/kuppaumoog/.

3 plur.
{They pay me},
/Nuppaumukquog/.
{They pay thee},
/kuppaumukquog/.
{They pay him},
/uppaumouh/.
{They pay us},
/nuppaumukqunnonog/.
{They pay you},
/kuppaumuk8oog/.
{They pay them},
/uppaumouh nah/.

<277>
[p.30]

Indicative Mode.

PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{I did keep thee},
/K8wadchanunup/.
{I did keep him},
/n8wadchanˇp/.
{I did keep you},
/k8wadchanunnumwop/.
{I did keep them},
/n8wadchanˇpanneg/.

2 sing.
{Thou didst keep me},
/K8wadchanip/.
{Thou didst keep him},
/k8wadchanˇp/.
{Thou didst keep us},
/k8wadchanimunonup/.
{Thou didst keep them},
/k8wadchanopanneg/.

3 sing.
{He did keep me},
/N8wadchanukup/.
{He did keep thee},
/k8wadchanukup/.
{He did keep him},
/8wadchanˇpoh/.
{He did keep us},
/n8wadchanukqunnonup/.
{He did keep you},
/k8wadchanuk8op/.
{He did keep them},
/8wadchan8ˇpoh/.


PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{I did pay thee},
/Kuppaumunup/.
{I did pay him},
/nuppaumˇp/.
{I did pay you},
/kuppaumunumwop/.
{I did pay them},
/nuppaumˇpanneg/.

2 sing.
{Thou didst pay me},
/Kuppaumip/.
{Thou didst pay him},
/kuppaumˇp/.
{Thou dist pay us},
/kuppaumimunonup/.
{Thou didst pay them},
/kuppaumopanneg/.

3 sing.
{He did pay me},
/Nuppaumukup/.
{He did pay thee},
/kuppaumukup/.
{He did pay him},
/uppaumopoh/.
{He did pay us},
/nuppaumukqunnonup/.
{He did pay you},
/kuppaumuk8wop/.
{He did pay them},
/uppaumopoh nah/.

<278>
[p.31]


Indicative Mode.
PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{We did keep thee},
/K8wadchaninumunonup/.
{We did keep him},
/n8wadchanˇunonup/.
{We did keep you},
/k8wadchaninumunonup/.
{We did keep them},
/n8wadchanounonuppanneg/.

2 plur.
{Ye did keep me},
/K8wadchanimwop/.
{Ye did keep him},
/k8wadchanuop/.
{Ye did keep us},
/k8wadchanimunonup.
{Ye did keep them},
/k8wadchanoopanneg.

3 plur.
{They did keep me},
/N8wadchanukuppanneg/.
{They did keep thee},
/k8wadchanukuppanneg/.
{They did keep him},
/8wadchananopoh/.
{They did keep us},
/k8wadchanukqunonuppanneg.
{They did keep you},
/k8wadchanuk8oopanneg/.
{They did keep them},
/8wadchan8opoh nah/.

PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{We did pay thee},
/kuppaumunumunonup/.
{We did pay him},
/nuppaumounonup/.
{We did pay you},
/kuppaumunumunonup/.
{We did pay them},
/nuppaumounonuppanneg/.

2 plur.
{Ye did pay me},
/Kuppaumimwop/.
{Ye did pay him},
/kuppaumauop/.
{Ye did pay us},
/kuppaumimunonup/.
{Ye did pay them},
/kuppaumauopanneg/.

3 plur.
{They did pay me},
/Nuppaumukuppaneg/.
{They did pay thee},
/kuppaumukuppanneg/.
{They did pay him},
/uppaumauopoh/.
{They did pay us},
/nuppaumukqunnouppanneg/.
{They did pay you},
/kuppaumuk8opanneg/.
{They did pay them},
/uppaum8opoh nah/.

<279>

[p. 32.]

The Imperative Mode of the Suffix form animate
Affirmative.

Note, That this Mode of the Verb doth cast off the Affix, or prefixed
Pronoun, using onley the suffixed Grammaticall variations.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{ Let me keep thee},
/Wanchanunutti/.
{Let me keep him},
/wadchanonti/.
{Let me keep you},
/wadchanunonkqutch/.
{ Let me keep them},
/wadchanonti nagoh/.

2 sing.
{Do thou keep me},
/Wadchaneh/.
{Do thou keep him},
/wadchan/.
{Do thou keep us},
/wadchaninnean/.
{Do thou keep them},
/wadchan nag/.

3 sing.
{ Let him keep me},
/Wadchanitch/.
{Let him keep thee},
/wadchanukqush/.
{Let him keep him},
/wadchanonch/.
{Let him keep us},
/wadchanukqutteuh/.
{Let him keep you},
/wadchanuk8k/.
{ Let him keep them},
/wanchanonch/.


Present tense.

1 sing.
{ Let me pay thee},
/Paumunutti/.
{Let me pay him},
/paumonti/.
{Let me pay you},
/paumunonkqutch/.
{Let me pay them},
/paumonti/.

2 sing.
{ Do thou pay me},
/Paumeh/.
{Do thou pay him},
/paum/.
{Do thou pay us},
/pauminnean/.
{Do thou pay them},
/paum/.

3 sing.
{Let him pay me},
/Paumitch/.
{Let him pay thee},
/paumukqush/.
{Let him pay him},
/paumonch/.
{Let him pay us},
/paumukqutteuh/.
{Let him pay you},
/paumuk8k/.
{Let him pay them},
/paumonch/.

<280>

[p.33]

Imperative Mode.
Present tense.

1.plur.
{Let us keep thee},
/Wadchanunuttuh.
{Let us keep him},
/wadchanontuh.
{Let us keep you},
/wadchanunuttuh.
{Let us keep them},
/wadchanontuh.

2 plur.
{Do ye keep me},
/Wadchanegk.
{Do ye keep him},
/Wadchanˇk.
{Do ye keep us},
/wadchaninnean.
{Let us keep them},
/wadchanˇk.

3 plur.
{Let them keep me},
/Wadchanukquttei/, or /wadchanhettich/.
{Let them keep thee},
/wadchanukqush.
{Let them keep him},
/wadchanßhettich/.
{Let them keep us},
/wadchanukqutteuh.
{Let them keep you},
/wadchanuk8k.
{Let them keep them},
/wadchanßhettich.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{Let us pay thee},
/Paumunuttuh/.
{Let us pay him},
/paumontuh/.
{Let us pay you},
/paumunuttuh/.
{Let us pay them},
/paumontuh/.

2 plur.
{Do ye pay me},
/Paumegk/.
{Do ye pay him},
/paumˇk/.
{Do ye pay us},
/pauminnean/.
{Do ye pay them},
/paumˇk/.

3 plur.
{Let them pay me},
/Paumukquttei/, or /Paumăhettich/.
{Let them pay thee},
/paumukqush/.
{Let them pay him},
/paumßhettich/.
{Let them pay us},
/paumukqutteuh/.
{Let them pay you},
/paumuk8k/.
{Let them pay them},
/paumßhettich/.

<281>

[p.34]

The Optative Mode of the Suffix form animate Affirmative.

This Adverb (/toh/) or (/napehnont/) properly signifieth (/utinam/) {I
wish it were}. And see how naturally they annex it unto every
variation of this Mode of the Verb. Note also, That this
Mode keepeth the Affix, or prefixed Pronoun.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{I wish I keep thee},
/K8waadchanunan-toh/, or
/napehnont/.
{I wish I keep him},
/N8waadchanun-toh/.
{I wish I keep you},
/K8waadchanununeau-toh/.
{I wish I keep them},
/N8waadchanˇneau-toh/.

2 sing.
{I wish thou keep me},
/K8waadchanin-toh/.
{I wish thou keep him},
/k8waadchanon-toh/.
{I wish thou keep us},
/k8waadchaninneau-toh/.
{I wish thou keep them},
/k8waadchanoneauh-toh/.

3 sing.
{I wish he keep me},
/N8waadchanukqun-toh/.
{I wish he keep thee},
/k8waadchanukqun-toh/.
{I wish he keep him},
/8waadchanon-toh/.
{I wish he keep us},
/k8waadchanukqunan-toh/.
{I wish he keep you},
/k8waadchanukquneau-toh/.
{I wish he keep them},
/8waadchanon-toh/.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{I wish I pay thee},
/Kuppapaumunun-toh/.
{I wish I pay him},
/nuppapaumon-toh/.
{I wish I pay you},
/kuppapaumuneau-toh/.
{I wish I pay them},
/nuppapaumˇneau-toh/.

2 sing.
{I wish thou pay me},
/kuppapaumin-toh/.
{I wish thou pay him},
/kuppapaumon-toh/.
{I wish thou pay us},
/kuppapaumuneau-toh/.
{I wish thou pay them},
/kuppapaumˇneau-toh/.

3 sing.
{I wish he pay me},
/Nuppapaumukqun-toh/.
{I wish he pay thee},
/kuppapaumukqun-toh/.
{I wish he pay him},
/uppapaumon-toh/.
{I wish he pay us},
/kuppapaumukqunan-toh/.
{I wish he pay you},
/kuppapaumukquneau-toh/.
{I wish he pay them},
/uppapaumon-toh/.

<282>

[p.35]

Optative Mode.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{I wish we keep thee},
/K8waadchanunan-toh/.
{I wish we keep him},
/n8waadchanonan-toh/.
{I wish we keep you},
/k8waadchanunnan-toh/.
{I wish we keep them},
/n8waadchanonau-toh/.

2 plur.
{I wish ye keep me},
/K8waadchanuneau-toh/.
{I wish ye keep him},
/k8waadchanˇneau-toh/.
{I wish ye keep us},
/k8waadchanunean-toh/.
{I wish ye keep them},
/k8waadchanˇneau-toh/.

3 plur.
{I wish they keep me},
/N8waadchanukquneau-toh/.
{I wish they keep thee},
/k8waadchanukquneau-toh/.
{I wish they keep him,
/8waadchanˇneau-toh/.
{I wish they keep us},
/n8waadchanukqunan-toh/.
{I wish they keep you},
/k8waadchanukquneau-toh/.
{I wish they keep them},
/8waadchanˇneau-toh/.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{I wish we pay thee},
/Kuppapaumunan-toh/.
{I wish we pay him},
/nuppapaumˇnan-toh/.
{I wish we pay you},
/kuppapaumunančtoh/.
{I wish we pay them},
/nuppapaumonan-toh.

2 plur.
{I wish ye pay me},
/Kuppapauumuneau-toh/.
{I wish ye pay him},
kuppapaumˇneau-toh/.
{I wish ye pay us},
/kuppapaumunean-toh/.
{I wish ye pay them,
/kuppapaumˇneau-toh/.

3 plur.
{I wish they pay me},
/Nuppapaumukquneau-toh/.
{I wish they pay thee},
/kuppapaumukquneau-toh/.
{I wish they pay him},
/uppapaumˇneau-toh/.
{I wish they pay us},
/nuppapaumukqunan-toh/.
{I wish they pay you},
/kuppapaumukquneau-toh/.
{I wish they pay them},
/uppapaumˇneau-toh/.

<283>

[p.36]

Optative Mode.

PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{I wish I did keep thee},
/K8waadchanununaz-toh/.
{I wish I did keep him},
/n8waadchanˇnaz-toh/.
{I wish I did keep you},
/k8waadchanununnaouz toh/.
{I wish I did keep them},
/n8waadchanˇnaˇoz-toh/.

2 sing.
{I wish thou didst keep me},
/K8waadchaninneazčtoh/.
{I wish thou didst keep him},
/k8waadchanˇnazčtoh/.
{I wish thou didst keep us},
/k8waadchanuneanonuz-toh/.
{I wish thou didst keep them},
/k8waadchanˇnaouz-toh/.

3 sing.
{I wish he did keep me},
/N8waadchanukqunaz-toh/.
{I wish he did keep thee},
/k8waadchanukqunaz-toh/.
{I wish he did keep him},
/8waadchanˇnaz-toh/.
{I wish he did keep us},
/n8waadchanukqunanonuz-toh.
{I wish he did keep you},
/k8waadchanukqunnaouz-toh/.
{I wish he did keep them},
/8waadchanonaouz-toh/.

PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{I wish I did pay thee},
/Kuppapaumununaz-toh/.
{I wish I did pay him},
/nuppapaumˇnaz-toh/.
{I wish I did pay you},
/kuppapaumununnaouz-toh/.
{I wish I did pay them},
/nuppapaumonaouz-toh/.
{I wish thou didst pay me},

2 sing.
/Kuppapaumineaz-toh/
{I wish thou didst pay him},
/kuppapaumonaz-toh/.
{I wish thou didst pay us,
/kuppapaumuneanonuz-toh/.
{I wish thou didst pay them},
/kuppapaumˇnaouz-toh/.

{I wish he did pay me},
/Nuppapaumuk qunaz-toh,
{I wish he did pay thee},
/kuppapaumukqunaz-toh/.
{I wish he did pay him},
/uppapaumˇnaz-toh/.
{I wish he did pay us},
/nuppapaumukqunanonuz-toh.
{I wish he did pay you},
/kuppapaumukqunaouz-toh/.
{I wish he did pay them},
/uppapaumonaouz-toh/.

<284>

[p.37]


Optative Mode.

PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{I wish we did keep thee},
/K8waadchan˛nanonuz-toh/.
{I wish we did keep him},
/n8waadchan˛nanonuz-toh/.
{I wish we did keep you},
/k8waadchanunan˛naz-toh/.
{I wish we did keep them},
/n8waadchanonanonuz-toh/.

2 plur.
{I wish ye did keep me},
/K8waadchanineaouz-toh/.
{I wish ye did keep him},
/k8waadchanona˛uz-toh/.
{I wish ye did keep us},
/k8waadchaninneanonuz-toh/.
{I wish did keep them},
/k8waadchanˇnaouz-toh/.

3 plur.
{I wish they did keep me},
/N8waadchanukqunnaˇuz-toh/.
{I wish they did keep thee},
/k8waadchanukqunaˇuz-toh/.
{I wish they did keep him},
/8waadchanˇnaˇuz-toh/.
{I wish they did keep us},
/n8waadchanukqunnanouz-toh/.
{I wish they did keep you},
/k8waadchanukquna˛uz-toh/.
{I wish they did keep them},
/8waadchanˇnaouz-toh/.

PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{I wish we did pay thee},
/Kuppapaumunanonuz-toh/.
{I wish we did pay him},
/nuppapaumˇnanonuz-toh/.
{I wish we did pay you},
/kuppapaumunanonuz-toh/.
{I wish we did pay them},
/nuppapaumonanonuz-toh/.

2 plur.
{I wish ye did pay me},
/Kuppapaumineaouz-toh/.
{I wish ye did pay him},
/kuppapaumunaouz-toh/.
{I wish ye did pay us},
/kuppapaumineanonuz-toh/.
{I wish ye did pay them},
/kuppapaomnonaouz-toh/.

3 plur.
{I wish they did pay me},
/Nuppapaumukqunaouz-toh/.
{I wish they did pay thee},
/kuppapaumukqunaˇuz-toh/.
{I wish they did pay him},
/uppapaumˇna˛uz-toh/.
{I wish they did pay us},
/nuppapaumukqunanonuz-toh/.
{I wish they did pay you},
/kuppapaumukquna˛uz-toh/.
{I wish they did pay them},
/uppapaumˇnaouz-toh/.

<285>

[p.38]

The Suppositive Mode of the Suffix form animate
Affirmative.

Note, That this Mode also doth cast off the Affix, or prefixed Pronoun.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{If I keep thee},
/Wadchanunon./
{If I keep him},
/wadchanog/.
{If I keep you},
/wadchanunˇg/.
{If I keep them},
/wadchaog/.

2 sing.
{If thou keep me},
/Wadchanean/.
{If thou keep him},
/wadchanadt/.
{If thou keep us},
/wadchaneog/.
{If thou keep them},
/wadchanadt/.

3 sing.
{If he keep me},
/Wadchanit/.
{If he keep thee},
/wadchanukquean/.
If he keep him},
/wadchanont/.
{If he keep us},
/wadchanukqueˇg/.
{If he keep you},
/wadchanukqueˇg/.
{If he keep them},
/wadchanßhettit/, or /ont/.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{If I pay thee},
/Paumunon/.
{If I pay him},
/paumog/.
{If I pay you},
/paumunˇg/.
{If I pay them},
/paumog/.

2 sing.
{If thou pay me},
/Paumean/.
{If thou pay him},
/paumadt/.
{If thou pay us},
/paumeog/.
{If thou pay them},
/paumadt/.

3 sing.
{If he pay me},
/Paumit/.
{If he pay thee},
/paumukquean/.
{If he pay him},
/paumont/.
{If he pay us},
/paumukqueog/.
{If he pay you},
/paumukqueˇg/.
{If he pay them},
/paumßhettit/.

<286>

[p.39]

Suppositive Mode.

Note, Where the singular and plural are alike, they are distinguished
by /Noh/ or /Neen/ in the singular, and /Nag/ or /Nenawun/,
in the plural.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{If we keep thee},
/Wadchanunog/.
{If we keep him},
/wadchanogkut/.
{If we keep you},
/wadchanunog/.
{If we keep them},
/wadchanogkut/.

2 plur.
{If ye keep me},
/Wadchaneˇg/.
{If ye keep him},
/wadchanˇg/.
{If ye keep us},
/wadchaneog/.
{If ye keep them},
/wadchanˇg/.

3 plur.
{If they keep me},
/Wadchanhettit/.
{If they keep thee},
/wadchanukquean/.
{If they keep him},
/wadchanukßhettit/.
{If they keep us},
/wadchanukqueog/.
{If they keep you},
/wadchanukque˛g/.
{If they keep them},
/wadchanßhettit/.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{If we pay thee},
/Paumunog/.
{If we pay him},
/paumogkut/.
{If we pay you},
/paumunog/.
{If we pay them},
/paumogkut/.

2 plur.
{If ye pay me},
/Paumeˇg/.
{If ye pay him},
/paumˇg/.
{If ye pay us},
/paumeˇg/.
{If ye pay them},
/paumˇg/.

3 plur.
{If they pay me},
/Paumhettit/.
{If they pay thee},
/paumukquean/.
{If they pay him},
/paumßhettit/.
{If they pay us},
/paumukqueog/.
{If they pay you},
/paumuque˛g/.
{If they pay them}
/paumßhettit/.

<287>

[p.40]

Suppositive Mode.

PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{If I did keep thee},
/Wadchanunos/.
{If I did keep him},
/waadchanogkus/.
{If I did keep you},
/wadchanunˇgkus/.
{If I did keep them},
/wadchanogkus/.

2 sing.
{If thou didst keep me},
/Wadchaneas/.
{If thou didst keep him},
/wadchanas/.
{If thou didst keep us},
/wadchaneogkus/.
{If thou didst keep them}
/wadchanas/.

3 sing.
{If he did keep me},
/Wadchanis/.
{If he did keep thee},
/wadchanukqueas/.
{If he did keep him},
/wadchanˇs/.
{If he did keep us},
/wadchanukqueogkus/.
{If he did keep you},
/wadchanukqueˇgkus/.
{If he did keep them},
/wadchanos/.

PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{If I did pay thee},
/Paumunos/.
{If I did pay him},
/paumogkus/.
{If I did pay you},
/paumunˇgkus/.
{If I did pay them},
/paumuogkus/.

2 sing.
{If thou didst pay me},
/Paumeas/.
{If thou didst pay him},
/paumas/.
{If thou didst pay us},
/paumeogkus/.
{If thou didst pay them},
/paumas/.

3 sing.
{If he did pay me},
/Paumis/.
{If he did pay thee},
/paumukqueas/.
{If he did pay him},
/paumos/.
{If he did pay us},
/paumukqueogkus/.
{If he did pay you},
/paumukqueˇgkus/.
{If he did pay them},
/paumos/.

<288>

[p.41]

Suppositive Mode.

PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{If we did keep thee},
/wadchanunogkus/.
{If we did keep him},
/wadchanogkutus/.
{If we did keep you},
/wadchanunogkus/.
{If we did keep them},
/wadchanogkutus/.

2 plur.
{If ye did keep me},
/Wadchaneˇgkus/.
{If ye did keep him},
/wadchanˇgkus/.
{If ye did keep us},
/wadchaneogkus/.
{If ye did keep them},
/wadchanˇgkus/.

3 plur.
{If they did keep me},
/wadchanhettis/.
{If they did keep thee},
/wadchanukqueas/.
{If they did keep him},
/wadchanahettis/.
{If they did keep us},
/wadchanukqueogkus/.
{If they did keep you},
/wadchanukqueˇgkus/.
{If they did keep them},
/wadchanahettis/.

PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{If we did pay thee},
/Paumunogkus/.
{If we did pay him},
/paumunogkutus/.
{If we did pay you},
/paumunogkus/.
{If we did pay them},
/paumogkutus/.

2 plur.
{If ye did pay me},
/Paumeogkus/.
{If ye did pay him},
/paumogkus/.
{If ye did pay us},
/paumeogkus/.
{If ye did pay them},
/paumˇgkus/.

3 plur.
{If they did pay me},
/Paumehettis/.
{If they did pay thee},
/paumukqueas/.
{If they did pay him},
/paumahettis/.
{If they did pay us},
/paumukqueogkus/.
{If they did pay you},
/paumukqueˇgkus/.
{If they did pay them},
/paumahettis/.

<289>

[p.42]

The Indefinite Mode.

Present tense.	

{To keep},	
/Wadchanˇnat/.

Present tense.

{To pay},
/Paummuonat/.


The third Person of the Suffix form Animate is capable
to be expressed in the Indefinite Mode.

Note also, That this mode followeth the Indicative and keepeth
the Affix.

As for Example.

{To keep me,}
/N8wadchanukqunat/.
{To keep thee},
/k8wadchanukqunat/.
{To keep him},
/8wadchanonat/.
{To keep us},
/n8wadchanukqunnanonut/.
{To keep you},
/k8wadchanukqunnaout/.
{To keep them},
/8wadchanonaout/.

{To pay me},
/Nuppaumunkqunat/.
{To pay thee},
/kuppaumukqunat/.
{To pay him},
/uppaumonat/.
{To pay us},
/nuppaumukqunnanonut/.
{To pay you},
/kuppaumukqunnaout/.
{To pay them},
/uppaumonaoont/.

So much for the Suffix form Animate Affirmative.

<290>

[p.44]

The Suffix form Animate Negative.

Indicative Mode.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{I keep not thee},
/K8wadchanun8h/.
{I keep not him},
/n8wadchan˛h/.
{I keep not you},
/k8wadchanoog/.
{I keep not them},
/Mat n8wadchanoog/.

2 sing.
{Thou keep not me},
/K8wadchaneuh/.
{Thou keep not him},
/k8wadchan˛h/.
{Thou keep not us},
/k8wadchaneumun/.
{Thou keep not them,}
/Mat k8wadchanoog/.

3 sing.
{He keep not me},
/N8wadchanuk8h/.
{He keep not thee},
/k8wadchanuk8h/.
{He keep not him},
/Mat 8wadchanuh/.
{He keep not us},
/n8wadchanuk8un/.
{He keep not you},
/Mat k8wadchanuk8/.
{He keep not them},
/Mat 8wadchanuh/.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{I pay not thee},
/Kuppaumun8h/.
{I pay not him},
/nuppaum˛h/.
{I pay not you},
/kuppaumun8mw8/.
{I pay not them},
/Mat nuppaum8g/.

2 sing.
{Thou pay not me},
/Kuppaumeuh/.
{Thou pay not him},
/kuppaum˛h/.
{Thou pay not us},
/kuppaumeumun/.
{Thou pay not them},
/Mat kuppaumeumoog/.

3 sing.
{He pay not me},
/Nuppaumuk8h/.
{He pay not thee},
/Kuppaumuk8h/.
{He pay not him},
/Mat uppaumoh/.
{He pay not us,}/
/nuppaumuk8un/.
{He pay not you},
/Mat kuppaumuk8h/.
{He pay not them},
/Mat uppaumuh/.

<291>

[p.45]

Indicative Mode.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{We keep not thee},
/K8wadchanun8mun/.
{We keep not him},
/mat n8wadchanˇun/.
{We keep not you},
/k8wadchanun8mun/.
{We keep not them},
/mat n8wadchanounonog/.

2 plur.
{Ye keep not me},
/K8wadchaneumw8/.
{Ye keep not him},
/mat k8wadchanau/.
{Ye keep not us},
/k8wadchaneumun/.
{Ye keep not them},
/mat k8wadchanoog/.

3 plur.
{They keep not me},
/N8wadchanuk8og/.
{They keep not thee},
/k8wadchanuk8og/.
{They keep not him},
/mat 8wadchanouh/.
{They keep not us},
/n8wadchanuk8unonog/.
{They keep not you},
/k8wadchanuk8oog/.
{They keep not them},
/mat 8wadchanouh/.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{We pay not thee},
/Kuppaumun8mun/.
{We pay not him},
/mat nuppaumoun/.
{We pay not you},
/kuppaumun8mun/.
{we pay not them},
/mat nuppaumounonog/.

2 plur.
{Ye pay not me},
/Kuppaumeumw8/.
{Ye pay not him},
/mat kuppaumau/.
{Ye pay not us},
/kuppaumeumun/.
{Ye pay not them},
/mat kuppaumoog/.

3 plur.
{They pay not me},
/Nuppaumuk8og/.
{They pay not thee},
/kuppaumuk8og/.
{They pay not him},
/mat uppaumouh/.
{They pay not us},
/nuppaumuk8unonog/.
{They pay not you},
/kuppaumuk8oog/.
{They pay not them},
/mat uppaumouh/.

<292>

[p.46]

Indicative Mode.

PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{I did not keep thee},
/K8wadchanun8p/.
{I did not keep him},
/mat n8wadchanˇhp/.
{I did not keep you},
/k8wadchanun8mwop/.
{I did not keep them},
/mat n8wadchanopanneg/.

2 sing.
{Thou didst not keep me},
/K8wadchaneup/.
{Thou didst not keep him},
/mat k8wadchanˇp/.
{Thou didst not keep us},
/k8wadchaneumunonup/.
{Thou didst not keep them},
/mat k8wadchanopanneg/.

3 sing.
{He did not keep me},
/N8wadchanuk8p/.
{He did not keep thee},
/k8wadchanuk8p/.
{He did not keep him},
/mat 8wadchanˇpoh/.
{He did not keep us},
/n8wadchanuk8unonup/.
{He did not keep you},
/k8wadchanuk8op/.
{He did not keep them},
/mat 8wadchanopoh/.

PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{I did not pay thee},
/Kuppaumun8p/.
{I did not pay him},
/mat nuppaumˇp/
{I did not pay you},
/kuppaumun8mwop/.
{I did not pay them},
mat nuppaumopanneg/.

2 sing.
{Thou didst not pay me},
/Kuppaumeup/.
{Thou didst not pay him},
/mat kuppaum˛p/.
{Thou didst not pay us},
/kuppaumeumun˛nup/.
{Thou didst not pay them},
/mat kuppaumopanneg/.

3 sing.
{He did not pay me},
/Nuppaumuk8p/.
{He did not pay thee},
/kuppaumuk8p/.
{He did not pay him},
/mat paumˇpoh/.
{He did not pay us},
/nuppaumuk8unonup/.
{He did not pay you},
/kuppaumuk8op/.
{He did not pay them},
/mat uppaumopoh/.

<293>

[p.47]

Indicative Mode.

PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{We did not keep thee},
/K8wadchanin8munonup/.
{We did not keep him},
/mat n8wadchanounonup/.
{We did not keep you},
/k8wadchanin8munonup/.
{We did not keep them},
/mat n8wadchanounonuppanneg/.

2 plur.
{Ye did not keep me},
/K8wadchaneumwop/.
{Ye did not keep him},
/mat k8wadchan8op/.
{Ye did not keep us},
/k8wadchaneumunonup/.
{Ye did not keep them},
/mat k8wadchanoopanneg/.

3 plur.
{They did not keep me},
/N8wadchanuk8panneg/.
{They did not keep thee},
/k8wadchanuk8panneg/.
{They did not keep him},
/mat 8wadchan8opoh/.
{They did not keep us},
/n8wadchanuk8unonuppanneg/.
{They did not keep you},
/k8wadchanuk8oopanneg/.
{They did not keep them},
/mat 8wadchan8opoh/.

PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{We did not pay thee},
Kuppaumun8munonup/.
{We did not pay him},
/mat nuppaum˛unonup/.
{We did not pay you},
/kuppaumun8munonup/.
{We did not pay them},
/mat nuppaumounonuppaneg/.

2 plur.
{Ye did not pay me},
/Kuppaumeumwop/.
{Ye did not pay him},
mat kuppaum8op/.
{Ye did not pay us},
/kuppaumeumunonup/.
{Ye did not pay them},
/mat kuppaum8opanneg/.

3 plur.
{They did not pay me},
/Nuppaumuk8panneg/.
{They did not pay thee},
/kuppaumuk8panneg/.
{They did not pay him},
/mat uppaum8opuh/.
{They did not pay us},
/nuppaumuk8unonuppanneg/.
{They did not pay you},
/kuppaumuk8ˇopanneg/.
{They did not pay them},
/mat uppaum8opoh/.
<294>

[p.48]

The Suffix form animate Negative.
Imperative Mode.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{Let me not keep thee},
/Wadchanun8utti/.
{Let me not keep him},
/wadchanoonti/.
{Let me not keep you},
/wadchanunonkqutti/.
{Let me not keep them},
/wadchanoonti/.

2 sing.
{Do thou not keep me},
/Wadchanohkon/.
{Do thou not keep him},
/wadchanuhkon/.
{Do thou not keep us},
/wadchanăittuh/.
{Do thou not keep them},
/wadchanuhkon/.

3 sing.
{Let not him keep me},
/Wadchanehkitch/.
{Let not him keep thee},
/wadchanuk8hkon/.
{Let not him keep him},
/wadchanuhkitch/.
{Let not him keep us},
/wadchanuk8uttuh/.
{Let not him keep you},
/wadchanuk8hteˇk/.
{Let not him keep them},
/wadchanuhkitch/.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{Let me not pay thee},
/Paumunutti/.
{Let me not pay him},
/paumoonti/.
{Let me not pay you},
/paumun8utti/.
{Let me not pay them},
/paumoonti/.

2 sing.
{Do thou not pay me},
/Paumehkon/.
{Do thou not pay him},
/paumuhkon/.
{Do thou not pay us},
/paumăittuh/.
{Do thou not pay them},
/paumˇhkon/.

3 sing.
{Let not him pay me},
/Paumehkitch/.
{Let not him pay thee},
/paumuk8hkon/.
{Let not him pay him},
/paumuhkitch/.
{Let not him pay us},
/paumuk8uttuh/.
{Let not him pay you},
/paumuk8hteˇk/.
{Let not him pay them},
/paumuhkitch/.

<295>

[p.49]

Imperative Mode.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{Let not us keep thee},
/Wadchanun8uttuh/.
{Let not us keep him},
/wadchanˇontuh/.
{Let not us keep you},
/wadchanun8uttuh/.
{Let not us keep them},
/wadchanoontuh/.

2 plur.
{Do not ye keep me},
/Wadchanehteˇk/.
{Do not ye keep him},
/wadchanuhteˇk/.
{Do not ye keep us},
/wadchanăinnean/.
{Do not ye keep them},
/wadchanuhteˇk/.

3 plur.
{Let not them keep me},
/Wadchanehettekitch/.
{Let not them keep thee},
/wadchanuk8hkon/.
{Let not them keep him},
/wadchanahettekitch/.
{Let not them keep us},
/wadchanuk8uttuh/.
{Let not them keep you},
/wadchanuk8hteok/.
{Let not them keep them},
/wadchanahettekitch/.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{Let not us pay thee},
/Paumun8uttuh/.
{Let not us pay him},
/paumoontuh/.
{Let not us pay you},
/paumun8uttuh/.
{Let not us pay them},
/paumoontuh/.

2 plur.
{Do not ye pay me},
/Paumehteok/.
{Do not ye pay him},
/paumuhteok/.
{Do not ye pay us},
/paumăinnean/.
{Do not ye pay them},
/paumuhteok/.

3 plur.
{Let not them pay me},
/Paumehettekitch/.
{Let not them pay thee},
/paumuk8hkon/.
{Let not them pay him},
/paumahettekitch/.
{Let not them pay us},
/paumuk8uttuh/.
{Let not them pay you},
/paumuk8hteok/.
{Let not them pay them},
/paumahettekitch/.

<296>

[p.50]

The Suffix form Animate Negative.
Optative Mode.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{I wish I keep not thee},
/K8waadchanun8un-toh/.
{I wish I keep not him},
/n8waadchanoun-toh/.
{I wish I keep not you},
/k8waadchanun8uneau-toh/.
{I wish I keep not them},
/n8waadchanouneau-toh/.

2 sing.
{I wish thou do not keep me},
/K8waadchanein-toh/.
{I wish thou do not keep him},
/k8waadchanoon-toh/.
{I wish thou do not keep us},
/k8waadchanein-toh/.
{I wish thou do not keep them},
/k8waadchanouneau-toh/.

3 sing.
{I wish he do not keep me},
/N8waadchanuk8un-toh/.
{I wish he do not keep thee},
/k8waadchanuk8un-toh/.
{I wish he do not keep him},
/8waadchanoon-toh/.
{I wish he do not keep us},
/n8waadchanuk8unan-toh/.
{I wish he do not keep you},
/k8waadchanuk8uneau-toh/.
{I wish he do not keep them},
/8waadchanoon-toh/.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{I wish I do not pay thee},
/Kuppapaumun8un-toh/.
{I wish I do not pay him},
/nuppapaumoon-toh/.
{I wish I do not pay you},
/kuppapaumun8uneau-toh/.
{I wish I do not pay them},
/nuppapaumouneau-toh/.

2 sing.
{I wish thou do not pay me},
/Kuppapaumăin-toh/.
{I wish thou do not pay him},
/kuppapaumoon-toh/.
{I wish thou do not pay us},
/kuppapaumăinan-toh/.
{I wish thou do not pay them},
/kuppapaumouneau-toh/.

3 sing.
{I wish he do not pay me},
/Nuppapaumuk8un-toh/.
{I wish he do not pay thee},
/kuppapamuk8un-toh/.
{I wish he do not pay him},
/uppapaumoun-toh/.
{I wish he do not pay us},
/nuppapaumuk8unan-toh/.
{I wish he do not pay you},
/kuppapaumuk8uneau-toh/.
{I wish he do not pay them},
/uppapaumouneau-toh/.

<297>

[p.51]

Optative Mode.
Present tense.

1 plur.
{I wish we do not keep thee},
/8waadchanun8unan-toh/.
{I wish we do not keep him},
/n8waadchanounančtoh/.
{I wish we do not keep you},
/k8waadchanounan-toh/.
{I wish we do not keep them},
/n8waadchanounan-toh/.

2 plur.
{I wish ye do not keep me},
K8waadchaneinneau-toh/.
{I wish ye do not keep him},
/k8waadchanouneau-toh/.
{I wish ye do not keep us},
/k8waadchanăinnean-toh/.
{I wish ye do not keep them},
/k8waadchanouneau-toh/.

3 plur.
{I wish they do not keep me},
/N8waadchanuk8uneau-toh/.
{I wish they do not keep thee},
/k8waadchanuk8uneau-toh/.
{I wish they do not keep him},
/8waadchanouneau-toh/.
{I wish they do not keep us},
/n8waadchanuk8unan-toh/.
{I wish they do not keep you},
/k8waadchanuk8uneau-toh/.
{I wish they do not keep them},
/8waadchanouneau-toh/.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{I wish we do not pay thee},
/Kuppapaumun8on-toh/.
{I wish we do not pay him},
/nuppapaumoon-toh/.
{I wish we do not pay you},
/kuppapaumun8unan-toh/.
{I wish we do not pay them},
/nuppapaumounan-toh/.

2 plur.
{I wish ye do not pay me},
/Kuppapaumăineau-toh/.
{I wish ye do not pay him },
/kuppapaumooneau-toh/.
{I wish ye do not pay us},
/kuppapaumăinan-toh/.
{I wish ye do not pay them},
/kuppapaumooneau-toh/.

3 plur.
{I wish they do not pay me},
/Nuppapaumuk8uneau-toh/.
{I wish they do not pay thee},
/kuppapaumuk8uneau-toh/.
{I wish they do not pay him},
/uppapaumouneau-toh/.
{I wish they do not pay us},
/nuppapaumuk8unan-toh/.
{I wish they do not pay you},
/kuppapaumuk8uneau-toh/.
{I wish they do not pay them},
/uppapaumouneau-toh/.
<298>

[p.52]

Optative Mode.
PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{I wish I did not keep thee},
/K8waadchanun8unaz-toh/.
{I wish I did not keep him},
/n8waadchan˛unaz-toh/.
{I wish I did not keep you},
/k8waadchanunounaouz-toh/.
{I wish I did not keep them},
/n8waadchan˛unaouz-toh/.

2 sing.
{I wish thou didst not keep me},
/K8waadchanăinaz-toh/.
{I wish thou didst not keep him},
/k8waadchanˇunaz-toh/.
{I wish thou didst not keep us},
/k8waadchaneinanonaz-toh/.
{I wish thou didst not keep them},
/k8waadchanounnaouz-toh/.

3 sing.
{I wish he did not keep me},
/N8waadchanuk8unuz-toh/.
{I wish he did not keep thee},
/k8waadchanuk8unaz-toh/.
{I wish he did not keep him},
/8waadchanounaz-toh/.
{I wish he did not keep us},
/n8waadchanuk8unanonuztoh/.
{I wish he did not keep you},
/k8waadchanuk8aunouz-toh /.
{I wish he did not keep them},
/8waadchan˛unaouz-toh/.

PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{I wish I did not pay thee},
/Kuppapaumun8unaz-toh/.
{I wish I did not pay him},
/nuppapaumounaz-toh/.
{I wish I did not pay you},
/kuppapaumun8unaouz-toh/.
{I wish I did not pay them},
/nuppapaumounaouz-toh /.

2 sing.
{I wish thou didst not pay me},
/Kuppapaumăinaz-toh/.
{I wish thou didst not pay him},
/kuppapaumounaz-toh/.
{I wish thou didst not pay us},
/kuppapaumăinanonuz-toh/.
{I wish thou didst not pay them},
/kuppapaumnounaouz-toh/.

3 sing.
{I wish he did not pay me},
/Nuppapaumuk8unaz-toh/.
{I wish he did not pay thee},
/kuppapaumuk8unaz-toh/.
{I wish he did not pay him},
/uppapaumˇunaz-toh/.
{I wish he did not pay us},
/nuppapaumuk8uanonuz-toh/.
{I wish he did not pay you},
/kuppapaumuk8unaouz-toh/.
{I wish he did not pay them},
/uppapaumounaz-toh /.

<299>

[p.53]

Optative Mode.

PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{I wish we did not keep thee},
K8waadchanun8unanonuz-toh /.
{I wish we did not keep him},
/n8waadchan˛unanouz-toh/.
{I wish we did not keep you},
/k8waadchan8unaouz-toh/.
{I wish we did not keep them},
/n8waadchan8unaouz-toh/.

2 plur.
{I wish ye did not keep me},
/K8waadchanăina˛uz-toh/.
{I wish ye did not keep him},
/k8waadchanˇnuaouz-toh/.
{I wish ye did not keep us},
/k8waadchanăinanonaz-toh/.
{I wish ye did not keep them},
/k8waadchanounaouz-toh/.

3 plur.
{I wish they did not keep me},
/N8waadchanuk8unaz-toh/.
{I wish they did not keep thee},
/k8waadchanuk8unaz-toh/.
{I wish they did not keep him},
/8waadchanounaoaz-toh/.
{I wish they did not keep us},
/n8waadchanuk8unanonaz-toh/.
{I wish they did not keep you},
/k8waadchanuk8unaouz-toh/.
{I wish they did not keep them},
/8waadchanounaoaz-noh/.

PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{I wish we did not pay thee},
/Kuppapaumnun8unanonuz-toh/.
{I wish we did not pay him},
/nuppapaumounanonuz-oh/.
{I wish we did not pay you},
/kuppapaumun8unaoaz-toh/.
{I wish we did not pay them},
/nuppapaumounaˇaz-toh/.

2 plur.
{I wish ye did not pay me},
/Kuppapaumăinaoaz-toh/.
{I wish ye did not pay him},
/kuppapaumoonaoaz-toh/.
{I wish ye did not pay us},
/kuppapaumăinnanonaz-toh/.
{I wish ye did not pay them},
/kuppapaumoonaoaz-toh/.

3 plur.
{I wish they did not pay me},
/Nuppapaumuk8unaooz-toh/.
{I wish they did not pay thee},
/kuppapaumuk8unaooz-toh/.
{I wish they did not pay him},
/uppapaumoonaz-toh/.
{I wish they did not pay us},
/nuppapaumuk8nnuanonaz-toh/.
{I wish	they did not pay you},
/kuppapaumuk8unaoaz-toh/.
{I wish they did not pay them},
/uppapaumounaoaz-toh/.
<300>

[p.54]

The Suffix form Animate Negative.

Suppositive Mode.
Present tense.

1 sing.
{If I keep not thee},
/Wadchanun8on/.
{If I keep not him},
/wadchanoog/.
{If I keep not you},
/wadchanun8og/.
{If I keep not them},
/wadchanoog/.

2 sing.
{If thou keep not me},
/wadchaneean/.
{If thou keep not him},
/wadchanoadt/.
{If thou keep not us},
/wadchaneeog/.
{If thou keep not them},
/wadchanoadt/.

3 sing.
{If he keep not me},
/Wadchaneegk/.
{If he keep not thee},
/wadchanuk8an/.
{If he keep not him},
/wadchanunk/.
{if he keep not us},
/wadchanuk8og/.
{If he keep not you},
/wadchanuk8ˇg/.
{If he keep not them},
/wadchanunk/.

Present tense.

1 sing.
{If I pay not thee},
/Paumun8on/.
{If I pay not him},
/Paumoog/.
{If I pay not you},
/Paumun8ˇg/.
{If I pay not them},
/Paumoog/.

2 sing.
{If thou pay not me},
/Paumeean/.
{If thou pay not him},
/Paumoadt/.
{If thou pay not us},
/Paumeeog/.
{If thou pay not them},
/Paumoadt/.

3 sing.
{If he pay not me},
/Paumeegk/.
{If he pay not thee},
/paumuk8an/.
{If he pay not him},
/paumunk/.
{If he pay not us},
/paumuk8og/.
{If he pay not you},
/paumuk8ˇg/.
{If he pay not them},
/paumunk/.

<301>

[p.55]

Suppositive Mode/.
Present tense.

1 plur.
{If we keep not thee},
/Wadchanun8og/.
{If we keep not him},
/wadchanoogkut/.
{If we keep not you},
/wadchanun8og/.
{If we keep not them},
/wadchanoogkut/.

2 plur.
{If ye keep not me},
/Wadchaneeˇg/.
{If ye keep not him},
/wadchanoˇg/.
{If ye keep not us},
/wadchaneeog/.
{If ye keep not them},
/wadchanoˇg/.

3 plur.
{If they keep not me},
/Wadchanehetteg/.
{If they keep not thee},
/wadchanuk8an/.
{If they keep not him},
/wadchanahetteg/.
{If they keep not us},
/wadchanuk8og/.
{If they keep not you},
/wadchanuk8ˇg/.
{If they keep not them},
/wadchanahetteg/.

Present tense.

1 plur.
{If we pay not thee},
/Paumun8og/.
{If we pay not him},
/paumoogkut/.
{If we pay not you},
/paumun8ˇg/.
{If we pay not them},
/paumoogkut/.

2 plur.
{If ye pay not me},
/Paumee˛g/.
{If ye pay not him},
/paum˘˛g/.
{If ye pay not us},
/paumeeog/.
{If ye pay not them},
/paum˘˛g/.

3 plur.
{If they pay not me},
/Paumehetteg/.
{If they pay not thee},
/paumuk8an/.
{If they pay not him},
/paumahetteg/.
{If they pay not us},
/paumuk8og/.
{If they pay not you},
/paumuk8˛g/.
{If they pay not them},
/paumahetteg/.

<302>

[p.56]

Suppositive Mode.
PrŠter tense.

1 sing.
{If I did not keep thee},
/Wadchanun8os/.
{If I did not keep him},
/wadchanoogkus/.
{If I did not keep you},
/wadchanun8ˇgkus/.
{If did not keep them},
/wadchanoogkus/.

2 sing.
{If thou didst not keep me},
/Wadchaneeas/.
{If thou didst not keep him/.
/wadchanoas/.
{If thou didst not keep us},
/wadchaneeogkus/.
{If thou didst not keep them},
/wadchanoˇgkus/.

3 sing.
{If he did not keep me},
/Wadchaneekus/.
{If he did not keep thee},
/wadchanuk8as/.
{If he did not keep him},
/wadchanunkus/.
{If he did not keep us},
/wadchanuk88ˇgkus/.
{If he did not keep you},
/wadchanukogkus/.
{If he did not keep them},
/wadchanunkus/.

PrŠter tense/.

1 sing.
{If I did not pay thee},
/Paumun8os/.
{If I did not pay him},
/paumoogkus/.
{If I did not pay you},
/paumun8ˇgkus/.
{If I did not pay them},
/paumoogkus/.

2 sing.
{If thou didst not pay me},
/Paumeeas/.
{If thou didst not pay him},
/paumoas/.
{If thou didst not pay us},
/paumeeogkus/.
{If thou didst not pay them},
/paumoˇgkus/.

3 sing.
{If he did not pay me},
Paumeekus/.
{If he did not pay thee},
/paumuk8as/.
{If he did not pay him},
/paumunkus/.
{If he did not pay us},
/paumuk8ogkus/.
{If he did not pay you},
/paumuk8ˇgkus/.
{If he did not pay them},
/paumunkus/.

<303>

[p.57]

Suppositive Mode.
PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{If we did not keep thee},
Wadchanun8ogkus/.
{if we did not keep him},
wadchanoogkutus/.
{If we did not keep you},
/wadchanun8ˇgkus/.
{If we did not keep them},
/wadchanoogkutus/.

2 plur.
{If ye did not keep me},
/Wadchaneeˇgkus/.
{If ye did not keep him},
/wadchanoˇgkus},
{If ye did not keep us},
/wadchaneeogkus/.
{If ye did not keep them},
/wadchanoˇgkus/.

3 plur.
{If they did not keep me},
/Wadchanehettegkis/.
{If they did not keep thee},
/wadchanuk8as/.
{If they did not keep him},
/wadchanunkus/.
{If they did not keep us},
/wadchanuk8ogkus/.
{If they did not keep you},
/wadchanuk8ˇgkus/.
{If they did not keep them},
/wadchanahettegkis/.

PrŠter tense.

1 plur.
{If we did not pay thee},
/Paumun8ogkus/.
{If we did not pay him},
/paumoogkutus/.
{If we did not pay you},
/paumun8ˇgkus/.
{If we did not pay them},
/paumoogkutus/.

2 plur.
{If ye did not pay me},
/Paumeeˇgkus/.
{If ye did not pay him},
/paumoˇgkus/.
{If ye did not pay us},
/paumeeogkus/.
{If ye did not pay them},
/paumoˇgkus/.

3 plur.
{If they did not pay me},
/Paumehettegkis/.
{If they did not pay thee},
/paumuk8as/.
{If they did not pay him},
/paumunkus/.
{If they did not pay us},
/paumuk8ogkus/.
{If they did not pay you},
/paumuk8˛gkus/.
{If they did not pay them},
/paumahettegkis/.
<304>

[p.58]

The Indefinite Mode.
Present tense.

{Not to keep},
/Wadchanounat/.

Present tense.

{Not to pay},
/Paummu˘unat/.

The third Person of the Suffix form Animate Negative
is found expressible in this Mode Indefinite: As

{Not to keep me},
/N8wadchanuk8unat/.
{Not to keep thee}
/k8wadchanuk8unat/.
{Not to keep him},
/8wadchanounat/.
{Not to keep us},
/n8wadchanuk8unnanonut/.
{Not to keep you},
/k8wadchanuk8unnaout/.
{Not to keep them},
/8wadchanounat/.

{Not to pay me},
/Nuppaumunk8unat/.
{Not to pay thee},
/kuppaumuk8unat/.
{Not to pay him},
/uppaumounat/.
{Not to pay us},
/nuppaumuk8unnanonut/.
{Not to pay you},
/kuppaumuk8unnaout/.
{Not to pay them},
/uppaumounnaout/.

So much for the Suffix form Animate Negative.

<305>
[p.59]

The Suffix form Animate Causative is not universally
applicable to this Verb; neither have I yet fully
beat it out; onely in some chief wayes of the use of it
in Speech I shall here set down leaving the rest for
afterwards, if God will, and that I live to adde unto
this beginning.

Affirmative.

1
{I cause thee to keep me},
/K8wadchanumwaheshnuh-hog/.
{I cause thee to keep him},
/k8wadchanumwahunun/.
{I cause thee to keep them},
/k8wadchanumwahunununk/.

2
{Thou makest me keep him},
/K8wadchanumwahen/.
{Thou makest me keep them}.
/k8wadchanumwßheneunk/.

3
{He maketh me keep him},
/N8wadchanumwahikqunuh/.
{He maketh me keep them},
/nah n8wadchan˝wadikq˝uh/.

Negative.

1
{I cause thee not to keep me}.
/K8wadchan˝wa˝8hnuhhog/.
{I cause thee not to keep him},
/k8wadchanumwahun8un/.
{I cause thee not to keep them},
/k8wadchanumwahun8un˝k/.

2
{Thou makest me not keep him},
/K8wadchanumwahăin/.
{Thou makest me not keep them},
/k8wadchanumwaheinunk/.

3
{He maketh me not keep him},
/N8wadchanumwahik8unuh/.
{He maketh me not keep them},
Ibid.

Imperative Mode.

Affirmative.
{Make me keep him},
/Wadchanumwaheh n noh/.
{Make me keep them},
/Nah wadchanumwaheh/.

Negative.
{Make me not keep him},
/wadchanumwahehkon/.
{Make me not keep them},
Ibid.

Suppositive Mode.

Affirmative.
{If thou make me keep him},
/Wadchanumwahean yeuoh/.

Negative.
{If thou make me not keep him},
/Wadchanumwaheean/.

<306>

[p.60]

I WAS purposed to put in no more Paradigms of
Verbs; but considering that all Languages (so farre
as I know) and this also, do often make use of the Verb
Substantive Passive, and in the reason of Speech it is
of frequent use: Considering also that it doth differ
in its formation from other Verbs, and that Verbals
are often derived out of this form, as /Wadchanittuonk/,
{Salvation}, &c. &c. I have therefore here put down
an Example thereof.

Tbe Verb Substantive Passive.

/N8wadchanit/,  {I am kept}.

Indicative Mode.
Present tense.

sing.
{I am kept},
/N8wadchanit/.
{Thou art kept},
/k8wadchanit/.
{He is kept},
/wadchanau/.

Present tense.

plur.
{We are kept},
/N8wadchanitteamun/.
{Ye are kept},
/k8wadchanitteamw8/.
{They are kept},
/wadchanoog/.

PrŠter tense.

sing.
{I was kept},
/N8wadchanitteap/.
{Thou wast kept},
/k8wadchanitteap/.
He was kept},
/wadchanop/.

PrŠter tense.

plur.
{We were kept},
/N8wadchanitteamunˇnup/.
{Ye were kept},
/k8wadchanitteamwˇp/.
{They were kept},
/wadchanopanneg/.

<307>

[p.61]

Imperative Mode.

sing.
{Let me be kept},
/Wadchanitteadti/.
{Be thou kept},
/wadchanitteash/.
{Let him be kept},
/wadchanaj/.

plur.
{Let us be kept},
/Wadchanitteatuh/.
{Be ye kept},
/wadchanitteak/.
{Let them be kept},
/wadchanaj/.

Optative Mode.
Present tense.

sing.
{I wish I be kept},
/N8waadchanittean-toh/.
{I wish thou be kept},
/k8waadchanittean-toh/.
{I wish he be kept},
/waadchanon-toh/.

Present tense.

plur.
{I wish we be kept},
/N8waadchanitteanan-toh
{I wish ye be kept},
/k8waadchanitteaneau-toh/.
{I wish they be kept},
/waadchanoneau-toh/.

PrŠter tense.

sing.
{I wish I was kept},
/N8waadchanitteanaz-toh/.
{I wish thou wast kept},
/k8waadchanitteanaz-toh/.
{I wish he was kept},
/waadchan˛naz-toh/.

PrŠter tense.

plur.
{I wish we were kept},
/N8waadchanitteanan˛nuz-toh/.
{I wish ye were kept},
/k8waadchanitteanaouzčtoh/.
{I wish they were kept},
/waadchanonaouz-toh/.

<308>
[p.62]

Suppositive Mode.
Present tense.

sing.
{When I am kept},
/Wadchanitteaon/.
{When thou art kept},
/wadchanitteaan/.
{When he is kept},
/wadchanit noh/.

Present tense.

plur.
{When we are kept},
/Wadchanitteaog/.
{When ye are kept},
/wadchanitteaˇg/.
{When they are kept},
/wadchanit nag/.

The PrŠter tense is formed by adding (/us/ or /ßs/)
unto the Present tense/.

Indefinite Mode.

/Wadchanittăinßt/,	{To be kept}.

The form Negative of the Verb Substantive Passive.

Indicative Mode.
Present tense.

sing.
{I am not kept},
/N8wadchanitte˛h /.
{Thou art not kept},
/k8wadchanitte˛h/.
{He is not kept},
/Mat wadchanau/.

Present tense.
{We are not kept},
/N8wadchanitteoumun/.
{Ye are not kept},
/k8wadchanitteoumw8/.
{They are not kept},
/Mat wadchanoog/.

PrŠter tense.

sing.
{I was not kept},
/N8wadchanitteohp/.
{Thou wast not kept},
/k8wadchaniitteohp/.
{He was not kept},
/Mat wadchan˘uop/.

PrŠter tense.

plur.
{We were not kept},
/N8wadchanitteoumunnonup/.
{Ye were not kept},
/k8wadchanitteoumwop/.
{They were not kept},
/Mat wadchanoop/.

<309>

[p.63]

Imperative Mode of the form Negative Passive.

sing.
{Be thou not kept},
/Wadchanittuhkon/.
{Let not him be kept
/wadchittekitch/.

plur.
{Be not ye kept},
/Wadchanittuhk8k/.
{Let not them be kept},
/wadchannittekhettich/.

Suppositive Mode Passive Negative.
Present tense.

sing.
{When I am not kept},
/Wadchaneumuk/.
{When thou art not kept},
/wadchanin8muk/.
{When he is not kept},
/wadchanˇmuk/.

Present tense.

The Plural is formed by
adding (/Mat/) unto the
form Affirmative.

The PrŠter tense is formed by adding [/us/ or /ßs/] to
the Present tense.

The Indefinite Mode Passive Negative.

/Wadchnanˇunßt/,	{Not to be kept}.

<310>

[p.64]

A TABLE of the Grammar of the Suffix Verbs Affirmative
wherein onely the Suffixes, viz. The Grammatical
Addition after the word, are set down : As
for the Affix or Prefix, you may observe it is used onely
in the Indicative and Optative Modes ; The Imperative
and Suppositive Modes, lay it by, and are varied onely
by the Suffix. Also note that ({I him}) and {Thou
him}) in the Indicative Mode, is the Radicall word with
the Affix; and ({Do thou him}) in the Imperative
Mode is the Radicall word without any Affix or Suffix :
and what is prefixed or suffixed to the Radix is
Grammar.

Indicative Mode.
Present tense.

1
1 /oush/
2 {radic}
3 /unumw8/
4 /oog/

2
1 /eh/ or /ah/
2 {radic}.
3 /imun/
4 /oog/

3
1 /uk/
2 /uk/
3 /oh/ or /uh/
4 /ukqun/
5 /ukkou/
6 /oh/ or /uh/

1
1 /unumun/
2 /ˇun/
3 /unumun/
4 /ˇunˇnog/

2
1 /imw8/
2 /au/
3 /imun/
4 /auoog/

3
1 /ukquog/
2 /ukquog/
3 /ouh/
4 /ukqunonog/
5 /uk8oog/
6 /ouh/


PrŠter tense.

1
1 /unup/
2 /ˇp/
3 /unumwop/
4 /opanneg/

2
1 /ip/
2 /op/
3 /imunˇnup/
4 /opanneg/

3
1 /ukup/
2 /ukup/
3 /opoh/
4 /ukqunˇnup/
5 /uk8wop/
6 /opoh/

1
1 /unumunˇnup/
2 /ˇunˇnup/
3 /unumunˇnup/
4 /ˇunˇnuppanneg/

2
1 /imwop/
2 /auop/
3 /imunˇnup/
4 /auopanneg/

3
1 /ukuppanneg/
2 /ukuppanneg/
3 /auopuh/
4 /ukqunˇnuppanneg/
5 /uk8ˇpanneg/
6 /auopoh/

Imperative Mode.

1
1 /unutti/
2 /onti/
3 /unnonkqutch/
4 /onti/

2
1 /eh/
2 {radic}.
3 /innean/
4 {radic}.

3
1 /itch/
2 /ukqush/
3 /onch/
4 /ukqutteuh/
5 /uk8k/
6 /onch/

1
1 /unuttuh/
2 /ontuh/
3 /unuttuh/
4 /ontuh/

2
1 /egk/ or /ig/
2 /ˇk/
3 /innean/
4 /ˇk/

1 /ukquttei/ or /ăhettich/
2 /ukqush/
3 /ahettich/
4 /ukqutteuh/
5 /uk8k/
6 /ahnettich/

<311>

[p.65]

Optative Mode.

Present tense.

1
1 /unon/
2 /on/
3 /uneau/
4 /ˇneau/

2
1 /in/
2 /on/
3 /unean/
4 /ˇneau/

3
1 /ukqun/
2 /ukqun/
3 /on/
4 /ukqunßn/
5 /ukquneau/
6 /on/

1
1 /unan/
2 /ˇnßn/
3 /unan/
4 /ˇnßn/

2
1 /uneau/
2 /oneau/
3 /unean/
4 /ˇneua/

3
1 /ukquneau/
2 /ukquneau/
3 /ˇneau/
4 /ukqunßn/
5 /ukquneau/
6 /ˇneau/

PrŠter tense.

1
1 /unuaz/
2 /ˇnaz/
3 /ununnaˇuz/
4 /ˇnaˇuz/

2
1 /ineaz/
2 /onaz/
3 /uneanˇnuz/
4 /ˇnaˇuz/

3
1 /ukqunaz/
2 /ukqunaz/
3 /onaz/
4 /ukqunanonuz/
5 /ukqunaˇuz/
6 /onaouz/

1
1 /unanˇnuz/
2 /ˇnanˇnuz/
3 /unanˇnuz/
4 /ˇnanonuz/

2
1 /ineaˇuz/
2 /ˇnaˇuz/
3 /ineanonuz/
4 /ˇnaouz/

3
1 /ukqunaouz/
2 /ukqunaouz/
3 /ˇnaouz/
4 /ukqunanonuz/
5 /ukqunaˇuz/
6 /ˇnaˇuz/

Suppositive Mode.

Present tense.

1
1 /unon/
2 /og/
3 /unog/
4 /og/

2
1 /ean/
2 /adt/ or /at/
3 /eog/
4 /adt/ or /at/

3
1 /it/
2 /ukquean/
3 /ont/
4 /ukqueog/
5 /ukqueˇg/
6 /ont/

1
1 /unog/
2 /ogkut/
3 /unog/
4 /ogkut/

2
1 /eˇg/
2 /ˇg/
3 /eˇg/
4 /ˇg/

3
1 /hettit/
2 /ukquean/
3 /ßhettit/
4 /ukqueog/
5 /ukqueˇg/
6 /ahettit/

PrŠter tense.

1
1 /unos/
2 /ogkus/
3 /unogkus/
4 /ogkus/

2
1 /eas/
2 /as/
3 /egkus/
4 /as/

3
1 /is/
2 /ukqueas/
3 /os/
4 /ukqueogkus/
5 /ukque˘gkus/
6 /os/

1
1 /unogkus/
2 /ogkutus/
3 /unogkus/
4 /ogkutus/

2
1 /eˇgkus/
2 /˛gkus/
3 /eˇgkus/
4 /ogkus/

3
1 /ehettis/
2 /ukqueas/
3 /ahettis/
4 /ukqueogkus/
5 /ukqueˇg/
6 /ahettis/

Onely remember that (/toh/) is to
be annexed to every person
and variation in this Mode.

<312>

[p.66]

{I HAVE now finished what I shall do at present : and in
a word or two to satisfie the prudent Enquirer how I found
out these new wayes of Grammar, which no other Learned
Language (so far as I know) useth ; I thus inform him :
God first put into my heart a compassion over their poor
Souls, and a desire to teach them to know Christ and to bring
them into his Kingdome. Then presently I found out (by
God's wise providence) a pregnant witted young man, who
had been a Servant in an English house, who pretty well unč
derstood his own Language, and hath a clear pronunciation :
Him I made my Interpreter. By his help I translated the
Commandments, the Lord's Prayer, and many Texts of
Scripture : Also I compiled both Exhortations and Prayers
by his help. I diligently marked the difference of their
Grammar from ours : When, I found the way of them, I
would pursue a word, a noun, a verb, through all variač
tions I could think of. And thus I came at it. We must
not sit still and look for miracles ; Up, and be doing, and
the Lord will be with thee. Prayer and pains, through
faith in Christ Jesus will do any thing. Nil tam difficile
quod non--I do believe and hope that the Gospel shall
be spread to all the ends of the Earth, and dark corners of
the world by such a way, and that such Instruments as the
Churches shall send forth for that end and purpose. Lord
hasten those good days, and pour out that good Spirit upon
thy people}. Amen.



FINIS.

<213>

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS ON ELIOT'S INDIAN GRAMMAR.
ADDRESSED TO JOHN PICKERING, ESQ. BY
PETER S. DU PONCEAU.*

THE great and good man, whose work has given rise to the
following observations, did not foresee, when he wrote his Indian
Grammar, that it would be sought after and studied by the learned
of all nations, as a powerful help towards the improvement of a
science not then in existence. I mean the Comparative Science of
Languages, which of late has made such progress in our own
country, as well as in Europe where our aboriginal idioms have
become a subject of eager investigation. The Augustine of New
England had no object in view, but that which he expresses in
his title page,--"the help of such as desired to learn the Indian
language for the furtherance of the Gospel among the natives."
But that worldly fame, which he did not seek, awaited him at the
end of two centuries; and his works, though devoted to religion
alone, have become important sources of human learning.

Religion and Science, well understood, are handmaids to each
other. In no instance is this truth more evident than in the
branch of knowledge of which we are treating. For it is to the
unwearied and truly apostolick labours of Christian missionaries,
and of societies instituted for the propagation of the Gospel among
distant nations, that we are indebted for the immense materials
which we already possess on the subject of the various languages
of the earth. The Roman Congregation {De propagandÔ fide}#
gave the first impulse, which the zeal of the other Christian denominations
has, in later times, not only followed but improved
upon. The numerous translations of the sacred volume, which
have been made under the patronage of the British, Russian, and
American Bible Societies, into languages, many of which were till
then unknown, except by their names, have afforded ample means
of comparison between those various idioms; the value of which is

*These Remarks having been written at the suggestion of my learned friend Mr. Pickering
I have thought it right to inscribe them to him as a just tribute of friendship and
respect.  P.S.D.

# Many Grammars, Dictionaries, and Vocabularies of Asiatick, African and American
languages have been published under the direction of that Society, the only complete collection
of which is in the Vatican or in their own library. As the science advances,
they will doubt be reprinted, as the present work is, for the benefit of the
learned.
?